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Crvical Cancer Case Study

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ABSTRACT
Cervical cancer is the cancer in the cervix of women which is one of the most common cancers. It is lethal and is caused by Human Papilloma virus (HPV), mostly types HPV16 and HPV18. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) assay was carried out on cervical tissue biopsy samples which were obtained from women who were undergoing cancer related surgery at a regional cancer hospital. The samples were evaluated for the presence of HPV by PCR using a type-specific primer. The samples were subjected to DNA extraction (lysis, precipitation and purification) for performing the PCR assay in a QuantaBiotech S96 PCR. After performing PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis was carried out and observed under UV light (using a 1kb DNA ladder) to detect the
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Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Morphology
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small, uncoated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus that is responsible for infecting the skin or mucous membranes. It is circular in shape and has a double-stranded viral genome which is approximately 8 kb long. This genome encodes for early proteins which are six in total and is responsible for viral replication and 2 late proteins, L1 L2 and which are viral structure proteins. These type of viruses are encapsulated in a 72-degree capsid of icosahedral protein. HPV is a group of more than 200 viruses linked to the skin and moist membranes lining of the body like the cervix, the anus, the mouth and the throat.
Types
All HPV virus in this large group receives a number called its HPV type. HPV is called so because some types of HPV cause warts (papillomas). Some other types might lead to cancer. HPV has more than 100 species, of which about 90 are characterized and are numbered. It is also divided into two main groups of skin and mucous membranes based on clinical data. Most types of HPV are mucosal and are seen in the genital area, which can be further divided into high-risk types and low-risk HPV types.

Low-risk HPVs
About 12 types of HPV are known to be "low risk" as they are not capable of causing cervical cancer. However, they can cause genital papillomas or warts or can cause very small changes in cervical cells. These types of
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