Those women also suffer from anxiety, anger, guilt, grief and panic (Beck, 2006; Allen, 1998). This experience left women to struggle with nightmares and flashback even years after birth due to dysfunctional coping strategies (Elmir et al., 2010; Simpson &Catling, 2015; Fenech &Thomson, 2014). Traumatic childbirth leads women to experience feeling of loss; loss of self, motherhood, and loss of family values. Traumatic childbirth disturbed the women’s relationships with her partner and her child, such as loss of sexual desire and intimacy, and impaired mother –infant attachment (Elmir et al., 2010; Fenech &Thomson, 2014). Subsequent pregnancies were affected by the experience of traumatic childbirth as those women developed secondary tocophopia or fear of childbirth, which was associated with women decision not to have any subsequent pregnancy or request caesarean section for subsequent births (Elmir et al.,
In different studies such as Elsevier Editorial System (tm) for Midwifery Manuscript Draft by Rhonda Joy Boorman has shown that recent research in Australia found that 45.5% of women birthing are seemingly to report childbearing as traumatic (Alcorn et al., 2010), resulting in a projected 135,000 Australian women annually self-rating parturition as traumatic. Experiencing a traumatic birth could negatively impact on a woman's emotional
Women often feel unprepared for the degree of perineal pain that they experience postnatally and its impact on activities of daily living, reporting feelings of isolation and lack of support throughout the postnatal period (Herron-Marx, Williams and Hicks, 2007a), therefore, encompassing community and hospital based midwifery care. Enduring perineal pain has long-term implications including depression (Pairman et al., 2011), with evidence supporting that the delivery of postnatal care is too short, as some women experience pain up until three months postnatally suffering in silence as there is no appropriate professional input (Whapples, 2014).
Seven Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials from OK, Australia and Sweden comparing postnatal debriefing interventions with standard postnatal care were included. The intervention consisted of at least one debriefing intervention session, which had the purpose of allowing women to describe their experience and to normalise their emotional reaction to that experience. No difference between standard postnatal care with debriefing and otherwise was noted within three months postpartum or at three to six months postpartum. The authors concluded that there is no evidence to support either any effect of psychological debriefing for the prevention of psychological trauma in women following childbirth. (Bastos, Furuta,
Historically perinatal loss such as stillborn is rarely a topic of discussion. (Avelin, Erlandsson, Hildingsson, & Rådestad, 2011). Stillborn loss was not viewed as an problem, and was expected for mothers to forget about the baby, and have another one, while siblings were told to forget about the baby and not talk about the loss (Avelin et al., 2011). Perinatal loss responses can be vary widely as it covers variety of loss from pregnancy to birth within a few weeks, but most often it is an unexpected loss for many families who typically do not know what to do, what to expect and how to handle grief (O’leary & Warland, 2013). Furthermore, there is very little information on Stillbirth experiences especially about men who lose their child(Bonnette & Broom, 2012). Experiencing the loss of a child can be very difficult and often complicate grief which can affect parents social well being (Kersting & Wagner, 2012). In pregnancies that follows a loss such as perinatal loss, it has been found that parents experience high levels of psychological distress, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress. (O’leary & Warland, 2013; Kersting & Wagner, 2012)
CSA as a traumatic experience affects children in different ways. The majority of the studies in this literature review suggest a possible causal association in which increasing exposure to CSA led to decline in educational achievement of both victims and survivors. Some studies also suggest that the poorer achievement of those exposed to CSA could be influenced by other social, family or individual characteristics. However, findings in some studies suggest that some survivors are fairly resilient and therefore do not demonstrate poor academic outcomes.
Qualitative research comprises of receiving information that gives a verbal expression of the participates, providing more detail and depth than quantitative studies. It can be used to analysis people’s attitudes and emotions towards a topic encouraging them to expand on their answers to explain the reasons behind why they gave a particular response. The drawbacks to this being as it requires more time to collect the data so smaller sample sizes
The qualitative research serves to comprehend and explain on what a participant means (Morrow, 2005). In a more elaborate manner, Creswell (1998) defines qualitative research to be an analytical
Qualitative research focuses on gathering of mainly verbal data rather than measurements. The gathered information is then analyzed in an interpretative or subjective manner. The primary aim of a qualitative research is to provide a complete, detailed description of the research topic. It is usually more exploratory in nature.
Qualitative Research Methods is a type of scientific research which can consists of an investigation that seeks answers to a question, systematically uses a predefined set of procedures to answer the question, collects evidence, produces findings that were not determined in advance, and produces findings that are applicable beyond the immediate boundaries of the study. Qualitative research shares these characteristics and additionally, it seeks to understand a given
Qualitative research is a method used in different academic disciplines, generally in social science, but also in research and further contexts. Qualitative researchers aim to attain detailed understanding of human behavior rand the reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative method investigates the why and how of decision making, not just what, where, when. Hence, smaller but focused mainly on samples are more often used than large samples.
Qualitative research, also known as descriptive or naturalistic research aims to understand specifics of human conduct in everyday life by studying them in their natural surroundings with findings expressed in words (Saks & Allsop, 2007). According to Aveyard and Sharp (2013) qualitative research aims to explore an area or topic where little is known seeking to advance a theory. Critiquing is a vital tool in research, useful in revealing strengths and weaknesses of a research study, which enables researchers to give recommendations and suggestions for the improvement including for future research studies (Polit & Beck, 2014).
Qualitative research’s main aim is to provide a complete and detailed description of the topic that is been researched. This method is often used as accompany to quantitative research to generate
Qualitative Research is commonly used to develop a basic understanding of the problem. It is basically non-statistical in type of market research. It mainly uses an inductive technique, which is data that related to certain topics are gathered and grouped together into appropriate categories. The explanations usually developed from the data itself. It is used in experimental research design and expressive research at times also. The qualitative data gathered in several forms such as individual interview transcriptions; documents, journals and notes or records that have been made while observation, focus group and action research. Usually the qualitative research data collection methods are time consumable. Therefore the data is usually will be collected in a smaller sample to make it inexpensive. The main advantage of the qualitative data collection is that the information or result will be richer and usually has a deeper insight of a subject that under the study.