Literature Review "Not everything that counts can be counted, and not everything that can be counted counts" (Eigen—Arnett Educational & Cultural Foundation Inc, 2010). Karri Holley and Julia Colyar (2012) coauthors of the article "Under Construction: How Narrative Elements Shape Qualitative Research" addresses three stories that shape the features of qualitative research. The three narratives; Plot - the DNA of the narrative; Point of View – the author 's connection to the narrative; Authorial Distance – the author 's location within the text and Character – function as the avenues for audience investment in the topic of the qualitative research. These three narratives outline the story found at the beginning and end of qualitative research. The module of the narrative elements demonstrates "narrative constructs offer but one approach toward mapping the complex, hidden dimensions of experience" (2012).
Qualitative research involves the process of discovering not only what people think but also why they believe it. The object is to get people to discuss their stance, beliefs, or viewpoints to acquire an understanding of their feelings and motivation. The qualitative research utilizes in-depth small group studies to steer and assists the development of theory. The outcome of qualitative research tends to be indicative of the opinion of the researcher rather than estimated.
Qualitative Methods and Tools
There are three conventional qualitative methods
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Qualitative research is subjective data and is often used in the social sciences (Sarantakos 2013, p. 48). Qualitative research is devoted to gathering facts, this can be completed through personal experiences, behaviours, and observations (Sarantakos 2013, p. 46). The purpose of qualitative research is to gather an in depth understanding of human behaviour and the explanations for the behaviour (Martijn & Sharpe 2006, p. 1). An issue with only using a qualitative method is efficacy, qualitative studies cannot address relationships between variables with the degree of accuracy that is required to establish social trends (Sarantakos 2013, p. 46).
According to Schneider, Elliot, LoBiondo-Wood & Haber (2004), qualitative research methods, search for the meaning and understanding of human experiences in a naturalistic setting. A researcher obtains subjective facts in order to explore the experiences of each participant (Schneider, Elliot, LoBiondo-Wood & Haber 2004). As a result, qualitative research is a means in which a researcher gains an insight into the participant's point of view concerning their personal experiences; in order gain an understanding of the information given. Therefore this allows a researcher to collect subjective information to create a description of the phenomenon (Vishnevsky & Beanlands 2004).
The study is a qualitative study, which explores subjective and descriptive information from its participants to gather information such as opinions, ideas, and behaviors. The information that is gathered can help provide an understanding of a problem or provide possible resolutions to problems
Storytelling, in the form of both personal narratives and the established literary tradition, gives us a fuller understanding of ourselves and the experiences we have with others. "The whole point of stories," he says, "is not 'solutions' or 'resolutions' but a broadening and even heightening of our struggles…" (p. 129). Stories remind us of what is important in life, counsel us, point us in new and/or different directions, engage us in self-reflection, and sometimes inspire us to lead a different life all together.
Qualitative research is a broad field of inquiry that uses unstructured data collection methods, such as observations, interviews, surveys and documents, to find themes and meanings to inform our understanding of the
The method of qualitative research become key method in the human and social science and also in the education and health science. The definition of qualitative research is a research using methods such as participant observation or case studies which result in a narrative, descriptive account of a setting or practice. Sociologists using these methods typically reject positivism and adopt a form of interpretive sociology (Parkinson & Drislane,2011). It involves the research using data that do not indicate ordinal values. Furthermore, qualitative research includes the different kinds of data collection, techniques of analysis and diversity of theoretical frameworks (Guest; Namey & Mitchell, 2013). According to Creswell(2013) ‘’the final written report or presentation includes the voices of participants, the reflexivity of the researcher, a complex description and interpretation of the problem, and its contribution to the literature or a call for change.
Presently, diverse technology resources exist throughout the nation in a broad range of settings collectively across-the-board (Ruggiero & Mong, 2015). This qualitative narrative study could promote social change through technological transformations and media literacy within the instructional practice using technology as a tool in the learning process (Helms, 2014). In addition, technology alone has gained the attention of various educational and political leaders seeking to restore educational practices and technology development in K–12 curriculula (Blau & Peled, 2012).
Thematic analysis technique is used to identify and analyze patterns or themes within the work being analyzed (Vaismoradi, Turunen, & Bondas, 2013). In order to familiarize oneself in the data, they must reread the diary so that they themselves are submerged in the data (Gray et al., 2017, p. 270). Thematic analysis was used in the study to expose 18 meaning units, which consist of a group of words that are associated with each other through relevancy (Graneheim & Lundman, 2004, p.
Qualitative research is conducted in a natural setting and attempts to understand a human problem by developing a holistic narrative and reporting detailed views of informants about the culture of a problem. It forms a report with pictures and words. One of the most important distinctions that sets qualitative research apart from more traditional types of research is that qualitative research is holistic in that researchers study phenomena in their entirety rather than narrowing the focus to specific defined variables” (p. 93). Similarly, Cresswell (1984) indicated that qualitative research “is defined as an inquiry process of understanding a social or human problem, based on building a holistic picture, formed with words, reporting detailed views of informants, and conducted in a natural setting” (p. 2). Cresswell’s definition clearly delineates the major characteristics of qualitative research. Pg. 50 (Smith & Davis, 2010).
Qualitative research describes the research that can produce observations and descriptions. If you were observing or interviewing someone, you would want to use qualitative research to ask questions such as "how" or "why".
In conclusion, Capella University has several qualitative methods that are pre-approved for learners to utilize in their dissertations. These methods are as descriptive case studies, descriptive phenomenology, and exploratory data analysis (Capella University, 2016). Case studies, interviews, and focus groups were mentioned in the Unit 7 assignment scenario. Each of these were considered a data source and contributed to the methodology of the
Qualitative research comprises of receiving information that gives a verbal expression of the participates, providing more detail and depth than quantitative studies. It can be used to analysis people’s attitudes and emotions towards a topic encouraging them to expand on their answers to explain the reasons behind why they gave a particular response. The drawbacks to this being as it requires more time to collect the data so smaller sample sizes
According to Kothari (2008) qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena which are related to or involve quality or kind. Qualitative research engages the collection and analysis of non-numerical data obtained from experiments, interviews, observations, and other resources involving statements and arguments. Research is conducted into particular context and non-numerical interpretive approach is used to produce narrative description of research data. Unlike quantitative research, this type of research considers the underlying facts behind the establishment of particular behaviors and assumptions. It is commonly used in behavioural sciences where the aim of research is to discover underlying motives of human behaviour.
Qualitative research is a technique of promoting research that stresses the quality according to the user’s point of view and approaches. In depth interviews and focus groups are best examples of qualitative research. [Laura Lake, 2009]