A person with a defensive personality may feel as though they are being attacked and to cope with it they need to defend their choice of words and actions when they are dealing with other individuals. My younger sister, Carlee, has a defensive personality. We have the same mother, but different fathers. This caused us to be raised in different situations. She has moved around a lot, going from my dad’s house, to our mom’s house, and to her dad’s house. She did not have a set place where she could call her “home”. Generally, Carlee is a good kid and listens, and does not argue too much. However, as siblings usually do, there are quarrels between us. She will get overly defensive and extremely furious very easily. She overreacts to …show more content…
A lack of encouragement and support will inevitably lead to feelings of inferiority. Since she did not receive this encouragement, this could be what causes her to defend herself so vigorously to others. Erickson might say that the lack of encouragement Carlee received when she was younger has caused her to not believe in herself so much, so she feels that she has to defend herself to people when they tell her something. However, Lawrence Kohlberg, a psychologist known for his theory of stages of moral development, might say that the reason for her behavior is that she was trying to gain the attention of her mother and father. Growing up, there was conflict and unsure times between her mom and her dad. This lead to the times where Carlee was fighting for attention and it was coming out in a way that maybe was not welcomed by others. The stage that focuses on situations like this is the conventional level stage. This stage states that, children begin to understand what is expected of them by their parents, teacher, etc. Morality is seen as achieving these expectations ( ). Fulfilling obligations as well as following expectations are seen as moral law for children in this stage. She saw her mom and dad fighting and arguing all the time, so she thought that she was supposed to act the same way. This has caused her to gain the trait of being overly
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This theory considers external factors, parents, and society in the development of personality from childhood to adulthood. He developed a series of eight stages that he believed everyone went through over their lifetime. The third stage is the “preschooler: initiative vs. guilt. This is the stage where the child began to find purpose. Erikson described that by the age of 3, children began to deal with conflict and have a desire to gain independence. Josiah definitely went through this stage. At the age of 3, Josiah began to explore indoor and outdoor activities and let his interests be the guide to what he would pursue. By kindergarten, Josiah wanted to pick out his own clothes and wanted to choose what he would eat for lunch. Josiah and I were able to balance his decisions and my rules by compromising. I was able to pick out two outfits of my choice but allow Josiah to pick from those two choices so that he had some sort of independency. I also noticed that Josiah begin to interact with his peers better. He was able to help make up games and discuss new ideas to his teachers. Erikson’s initiative explained the development of purposefulness, trying new activities, trying out new skills, getting more involved with peers, and conscience development. Guilt, on the other hand, results in an overly strict superego related to excessive experiences such as criticism and punishment, from parents. I
Over the last 100 years, the underpinning concepts in the fields of psychology and counseling were wrought. Within this period, these concepts have transformed and evolved from somewhat crude conceptions of the psyche toward more holistic interventions and approaches. As the profession continues to move forward, adaptations of the original theorists regarding the nature of man and the development of personality continue to emerge. These adaptations, along with the integration of new concepts and ideas, continue to contribute to the field. The author describes his view of man and human nature, personality development, and explores potential implications for counseling.
This oppressive nature results in an inferiority complex being developed by the narrator. The narrator is unable to express her opinion
As stages in psychological development have been defined by Freud, stages in moral development have been outlined by early educators Jean Piaget and Kohlberg, who put forth differing views on the moral development of children. Piaget theorized that children process morals in stages, first one then the next, with a transition in between. The first stage (from ages 4 to about 7) is referred to as “heteronymous morality”, where children think of rules as constants, that is to say, rules are part of the world’s makeup with no input or possibility of change by people. As children progress from seven to ten years of age, they move from one stage to the next, maintaining some of the traits of the
The second level of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral development is the Conventional Level. The Conventional level consists of stages 3 and 4. Stage 3 is based on interpersonal expectations. Those who are at this stage try to be a “good” boy or a “good” girl and live up to others’--such as close friends and family’s-- expectations. Stage 4 is based on Law-and-Order. They are not only focused on what their family and friends say; they are now focused on society. These stages are usually reached by early teens. They don’t blindly follow rules;
She tries to deny that there is a problem with the world and she is underprivileged. She even says that no one can beat her at anything, but inside she is feeling angry and
My life closely mimics how Kohlberg described in his theory of moral development. From the first stage of his theory of moral development, I recall following orders to the letter. The punishment and threat thereof were terrifying. Detention, suspension, expulsion were strong deterrents. Raised by very strict parents, I listened and obeyed every command. School was the priority, and getting good grades was the most important thing to them. Therefore, it was the most important thing to me. But as I grew, I began to see conflict in what my parents saw was right and what the teachers said was right. This lead me to stage two of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development that different people will have different opinions on what is right. I had to
Another stage of Erikson’s theory that is similar to stages of Kohlberg’s theory is identity versus identity confusion where the adolescent learns the essence of what makes them who they are from bringing together everything they have learnt and what kind of person they will be. Kohlberg’s stages that are similar is the conventional stage of good boy/ nice girl morality where the school-aged child follows rules to be accepted by those around them, and the postconventional stage of social contract orientation where the adolescent will follow society customs for the benefit of others. These three stages are closely associated as someone’s identity is usually shaped by the customs of society. People will do what is expected of them to be accepted which in turn contributes to their identity. The last similarity between the two theories is Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation where the middle-aged adult broadens their concern from themselves to the community and world, and Kohlberg’s postconventional stage of universal ethical principles where the adult’s actions are determined by their own ethical principles and standards of behaviour. These two stages complement each other as a person cannot have concerns for the community and world if they do not have a sense of their own beliefs and values as a foundation. A person needs to know what they value to then go on and have concerns that
The student has a high tolerance for clients who do not comply with or are resistance to services. However, at some point enough is enough and the student develops negative feelings towards the client and believes that the client is wasting the student as well as others time, energy, and resources which could be directed towards another who is need of support. Understandable there is a movement in the social service field to remove the label of “resistant client” from clients who do not embrace change happening in their life because the label suggest blame. However, in the student’s chosen profession, working for a social services agency coordinating and facilitating services for individuals with an intellectual and or physical disability, the system reinforces resistant behaviors; the more resistant the individual the more likely their health and safety are at risk which places responsibility back onto
One thing I have learned working with children, is these young is that a lot of their actions are what they see in tier surrounding, there was a time that a child yelled at their friend a pushed them down, we walked over and asked the children what happened? The child said, “well my brother does that to me at home. We asked what does your mom or dad do, when they see it, they said laugh. So as adults my belief is that the children at an early age do mimic you, or other adults for the actions they see. After this experience, I always share with my co teachers, that if you think that children don’t learn form you, your wrong. Kohlberg therefore interviewed both children and adolescents about moral dilemmas, and did find stages that go well beyond
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development were based on a moral philosopher by the name of Lawrence Kohlberg. His main interest was to observe children during growth to develop and conclude which stages they best fit into. After observing both adults and children, he concluded that, “Human beings progress consecutively from one stage to the next in an invariant sequence” (“Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development”). All of the 6 stages he created, represent the morality in which a child or adult can be at; he created an age zone for each stage. There are a total of 6 stages but each main concept consists of 3 levels. Level 1 is the preconventional stage. This stage focuses on punishment/obedience and how the person decides to act due to the
This stage last from ages 2-3 years old. This stage corresponds to Freud 's anal stage. Initiative vs. Guilt is the stage where a developing child must be active in their environment. The ages of this stage are 3-5 years old. The child needs to have a sense of purpose. Industry vs. Inferiority is the stage where a child develops competence. The ages for this stage are 6-11 years old. These are the school years of a child 's life. Ego Identity Vs. Role Confusion is the stage where a child is in their adolescent years. The ages of this stage are 12-18 years old. The teenager is going through puberty and is noticing members of the opposite sex. Intimacy Vs. Isolation is the stage where the person is trying to find a mate for themselves. The ages for this stage are 18-24 years old. They want love. Generativity Vs. Stagnation is the stage where the now adult is working and they want to be a mentor for other children. the ages in this stage are 25-64 years old. The last stage of Erickson 's theory is Ego Integrity Vs. Despair. In this last stage a person needs to become comfortable with the life that they are living and have lived. The ages of this last stage are from 65-death.
The study of personality traits is beneficial in identifying the many variables that exist from human to human; the combinations of these variables provide us with a true level of individuality and uniqueness. In the field of psychology, trait theory is considered to be a key approach to the study of human personality (Crowne, 2007; Burton, Westen & Kowalski, 2009). This paper aims to identify a number of significant contributors who have played crucial roles in both the development and application of trait theory. This paper then moves focus to these theorists, outlining their theory and analysing both the strengths and weaknesses of those theories. An illustration of the methods used in trait measurement is given and includes the