It is estimated that 20 percent of individuals in Australia will be affected by mental illness at any stage in their life. Previous research attained, highlights that mental illness is twice as common in individuals whom are single than individuals in which are married (Stoddart, 1926). Marriage can generate an essence of identity and contribute to one’s self-worth (Gove et al. 1990). However, marriage can be stressful, specifically to those that are generally more vulnerable to stressors and therefore can eventually lead to the individual becoming more predisposed to developing a mental illness than others. Depression is noted as one of the frequently occurring psychiatric disorders. Depressive symptoms can significantly affect changes in marital status due to the sensitivity and reactiveness predisposed by the symptoms. England & Farkas (1986) found that women appeared to show more emotional investment in their marriage. A study by Gonzalez and Koestner (2006) showed gender differences regarding one’s expression towards romantic emotions, in individuals married or in current relationships. The participants analyzed content of 300 valentine announcements, in which love, praise, commitment and fidelity were the emotions addressed. The study concluded that women emphasized love and fidelity; whilst men emphasized praise and commitment significantly more. Further, research has shown that greater distress was possessed by married women compared to married men, which may be as
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Depression is “a psychoneurotic or psychotic disorder marked especially by sadness, inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration, a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal tendancies”. (Merriam-Webster, unknown). It is important to understand the effects of depression amongst young people, as it is a large problem in Australia. Depression effects on in sixteen Australians aged 16-24 (BeyondBlue, unknown), and the largest killer of the Australian youth is suicide (BeyondBlue, unknown). Depression can be broken down into smaller sections, and they are; the way it effects young people, the prevalence of depression, the consequences it brings upon
Television psychologists and pop culture self-help gurus tell us that marriage is hard work; marriage is compromise; marriage is a choice between being right, and being happy. All of these statements are true. What these experts don’t tell us, however, is that marriage is also about putting on blinders, or looking on the bright side, or one of a hundred other trite phrases to explain the art of self-deception. In marriage, there are times when we may find it necessary to look the other way from our spouse’s faults or indiscretions, in the interest of self-preservation. For if we examine these problems too closely, our darkest, most secret fears may come true. Therefore, it can seem easier to focus on the positive. In her poem “Surprise,” Jane Kenyon uses denial, selective perception, and fear of betrayal to illustrate the self-deception that can occur in marriage.
In the general population, 6 in 10 men and 5 in 10 women will experience a traumatic event which will lead into unstable habits, resulting in restricted physical activity. These restrictions in physical activities are linked with fear. In the recent years, researchers such as Campbell et al. (2008), Follette et al. (1996), Hoge et al. (2007) and Wagner et al. (2000) have concluded that there are physical health impacts a person can present from traumatic events (namely, combat exposure, sexual assault or natural disaster). The Australian Defence Force states that in 2010, approximately 90% of the ADF and 73% of Australian citizens have been affected by at least one traumatic event (Australian Government, unknown).Brewin, Andrews and Valentine (2000) informs that multiple traumatic events induce stronger neural signals on the brain. Campbell et al. (2008) and Hoge et al. (2007) highlight that somatic disorder is interrelated from these strong neural signals on the brain in emerging data in traumatic events and physical health.
Although Barry and Tannen have taken different approaches to examine the differences between men and women, as Barry’s point was based on housework while Tannen’s discussion mainly focused on communication, it should be noted that both of them agreed on the opinion that men and women are quite different from each other, especially in terms of emotions and feeling. Barry and Tannen pointed out that women are more inclined to share their feelings and emotions while men are not. In Barry’s article, he has been quite specific about this point by saying that “some women (and here I am referring to my wife) can share as many as three days’ worth of feelings about an event that take eight seconds to actually happen. We men, on the other hand, are reluctant to share our feelings, in large part because we often don’t have
Depression is a mental disorder in which a patient might feel intense, prolonged, negative emotions (Beyond Blue, 2014). This can have severe impact on a person's mental and physical health, thus affecting a person's quality of life. Severe cases can even lead to suicide. It is estimated that one in six Australians will experience depression in their lifetime (Beyond Blue, 2014). The burden of disease gives an indication of of the loss of health and well being of Australians due to each disease (ABS, 2010). Depression and anxiety is the leading cause of burden among females, accounting for 10% of burden while it is the third leading cause for men, accounting for 4.8% (AIHW, 2003) (This was the most recent information found).
Relationship satisfaction is an important part of romantic relationships. A lack of satisfaction can lead to consequences in other areas of life and eventually, the destruction of the relationship. For example, job performance is heavily influenced by romantic relationship satisfaction. In a study by Greenhaus and Beutell (1985), they argued that poor satisfaction leads to poor job performance and vice versa. They stated this was to because these two spheres are “interdependent.” Satisfaction can also influence quality of health. Conflict in a marital relationship is associated with higher heart rates and blood pressure (Broadwell & Light, 1999; Ewart, Taylor, Kaemer & Agras, 1991; Flor, Breitenstein, Birbaumer & Furst 1995; Frankish & Linden, 1996; Kiecolt-Glaser, 1993; Mayne, O’Leary, McCrady, Contrada & Labouvie, 1997; Morell & Apple, 1990; Shwartz, Slater & Birchler, 1994; Thomsen & Gilbert, 1998). It is also strongly associated with depression and depressed syndromes (Beach, Fincham & Katz, 1998; Fincham & Beach, 1999). This relationship between marital conflict and depression seems to be bidirectional meaning depression is not only a result of conflict but also is caused by the conflict (Beach, et. al., 1998; Fincham & Beach, 1999). Because a lack of relationship satisfaction can negatively affect so many important areas of life, it is important to understand what influences the level of satisfaction held in romantic relationships.
Pratz’s first main point is that marriages can be predicted to either succeed or end in divorce within the early stages of courtship or initial years of marriage. She offers that the early stages of distress are what determine a couple’s fate. Pratz includes Ted Huston, a professor of human ecology and psychology at the University of Texas, and his Process of Adaptation in Intimate Relationships Project as her main source throughout the article. Pratz states, “through multiple
Studies have shown that men have searched for help with depression just as well as women. However, it’s less likely for men to seek help because women are more vulnerable to depression. From younger years’ boys are taught to avoid revealing their emotions because it might threaten their social rank and their sense of identity. Men have the idea if they ask for any type of help they will lose their masculine touch. Men are more likely to help others rather than help themselves.
The definition of health and illness varies across societies due to their differing cultural, social and ethnic beliefs. The description associated with health and illness has been socially constructed so that the view of a medical profession is the most accurate. There is a general conception to think of health habits such as exercise and consuming a healthy diet when the terms health and illness are mentioned. However it is thought that the conditions that determine health changes are heavily based on one’s social conditions as it is seen that diseases occur in patterns. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) “health is a complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.” Social
Established with Adam and Eve, still surviving, marriage is the oldest institution known. Often the climax of most romantic movies and stories, whether it may be ‘Pride and Prejudice’ or ‘Dil Wale Dulhaniya Ley Jaein Gey’, marriage has a universal appeal. It continues to be the most intimate social network, providing the strongest and most frequent opportunity for social and emotional support. Though, over the years, marriage appears to be tarnished with high divorce rates, discontentment and infidelity, it is still a principal source of happiness in the lives of respective partners. Although marriage is perceived as a deeply flawed institution serving more the needs of the society than those of the individuals, nevertheless, marriage is
Kerr and Bowen (1988) got my attention with the description of, “An event or more likely a series of events, can disturb the balance of a relationship system and trigger symptoms. The event may be the addition of something new that has to be dealt with or the loss of something old that relied on” (p. 265). This brings more clarity to the collapse of my first marriage and gives an answer to the “why now” question that has often been asked. We were together for ten years prior to our marriage and then married for another ten years. While the situation was always filled with anxiety, I could not come to terms with what was the determining factor that caused the “symptoms” to go so far that our relationship ended. Although we had survived for
To measure their satisfaction, the RDAS evaluates and differentiates the couple’s dyadic adjustment in both distressed and nondistressed relationships (Gangamma et al., 2012). Lower scores on this scale indicate greater relationship distress while higher scores indicate greater relationship satisfaction (Gangamma et al., 2012). Thus, both of these measures may aid the therapist in determining each partner’s perception of unfairness and satisfaction within their relationship (Gangamma et al., 2012). These measures also provide the therapist with a greater understanding of where each partner stands in regards to their relationship. Moreover, this greater understanding of the relationship can help the therapist determine a good starting point for contextual couple’s
Every year, there are an average of 26,250,000 arranged marriages worldwide, and of those marriages, 11,250,000 involve girls under the age of 18 years old (STATS). The practice of arranged marriage has been very prevalent in most cultures throughout history. For many women arranged marriage is a way to stay safe and protected in countries where they are given very few rights, and in others cultures it is used to created slaves for men to use however they wish. In countries, such as Africa, the role of tribes and families is very important to their culture. It is evident in reading “Marriage is a Private Affair” by Chinua Achebe and researching arranged marriage that the practice of arranged marriage was very important to many different cultures.
Marital satisfaction and the contributing factords are of extreme importance at this juncture in our society, though it has become obvious that there is a degeneration of communication and a lack of satisfaction in today’s married couples. This disatisfaction results in the divorce rate being sohigh that it begs the question: how does this marital satisfaction originate?