Diabetes is a rising epidemic that is largely due to the increasing rates of obesity, especially in young adults (Oram et al., 2016). Thus, it is becoming more difficult to discern between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in this population, which can lead to inappropriate treatment administration. Classification of diabetes subtypes is the first step in determining an individual’s course of treatment, thus accuracy is imperative. Many predictive and diagnostic tests exist for diabetes, including fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, hemoglobin A1C, islet autoantibodies, and insulin C-peptide testing (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases [NIDDK], 2015). However, recent research (Oram et al., 2016) has proposed that genetic risk scoring may be effective in accurately classifying diabetes. Furthermore, proper identification would assist providers in predicting which young adults are likely to advance quickly to a state of insulin insufficiency. In this paper, we will review and discuss the research and clinical findings associated with genetic risk scoring and the improved discernment between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in young adults, as well as evaluate its implications for nursing practice.
This quantitative study was intended to identify whether diabetic young adults, who were otherwise clinically ambiguous, could be accurately classified as to type of diabetes (Oram et al., 2016). The results of this data were highly
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Public health emphasizes the importance of prevention and proactively taking care of one’s body. As people grow older, they must follow certain guidelines to ensure that they age healthily and successfully. One of the biggest concerns facing the aging population is chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are long term diseases that have a slow progression. Once chronic diseases pass “certain symptomatic or diagnostic thresholds,” they become a permanent aspect of an individual’s life because “medical and personal regimens can sometimes control but can rarely cure them” (Albert and Freeman 105). One chronic condition that is a cause of concern is diabetes. Diabetes is not only one of the leading causes of death in the over 65 population but
According to the United States Library of Medicine, diabetes is a disease that occurs when the body does not make or use insulin correctly, therefore causing fluctuating amounts of glucose in the blood. Diabetes is a disease that affects millions of adults and children from various cultures. According to the American Diabetes Association (2014), someone is diagnosed with diabetes every 19 seconds. The Center of Disease Control and Prevention most recent statistical report indicated there were 29.1 million adults and children affected by diabetes. Those numbers are astounding. Unfortunately, the American Diabetes Association (2014) estimates by year of 2050, one out of three adults will have diabetes. Therefore, it is imperative that adults take aggressive measures to prevent this disease. By the same token, diabetes diagnosed in children and adolescent is becoming more prevalent every day. The American Diabetes Association (2014) reported there were about 216, 00 children in the United States with diabetes. It is predicted that one out three children will be diagnosed with diabetes in their life. The statistics for both adults and children with diabetes are frightening; however, early detection can help lower the risk of developing the debilitating effects of diabetes.
In 2002, among adults, there was an estimated 8.7% prevalence of diabetes. However, rather than there being a prevalence of the disease in the population as a whole, it was found more in specific population subgroups, such as the homeless population. There are certain risk factors these subgroups have that are either associated with diabetes or directly cause it. There is never a 100% correlation of development of diabetes
In order to combat the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in America, a series of subsidies and social programs promoting and mandating nutrition and exercise for weight loss should be created with the trillion dollar budget. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in America is rising and has doubled over the last 30 years to 23 million (Campbell). Currently, it costs the nation about $90 billion a year to treat the complications of type 2 diabetes (Hoerger). Added with the co-morbidities of type 2 diabetes, namely cardiovascular disease, obesity, and kidney failure, it becomes apparent that drastic measures are needed. In order to combat this epidemic, the U.S. Congress is proposing to use a trillion dollars to do whatever it takes to reduce the
However, because Danny does have diabetes, his health is in a poorer state and his risk for developing cardiovascular disease is increased. Diabetes is defined as having a fasting plasma glucose value of 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) or higher. Every year, diabetes claims many lives; for example, in 2008, diabetes was responsible for 1.3 million deaths all across the world (World Heart Federation, N.p., n.d). When looking at cardiovascular disease with diabetes, data shows that of all diabetics who die, 60% of them die as a result of cardiovascular disease (World Heart Federation, N.p., n.d). Cardiovascular risk increases with raised glucose values. The risk of cardiovascular events is from two to three times higher in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and the risk is disproportionately higher in women (World Heart Federation, N.p., n.d). From this we can infer that if my mother or I did have diabetes, it would be likely that that would increase our risk to a greater degree compared to Danny’s risk, because he is a male. Cardiovascular risk increases with raised glucose values. In addition, within certain age groups, people with diabetes have a two-fold increase in the risk of stroke. Patients with diabetes also have a poorer prognosis after cardiovascular events compared to people without diabetes. Primary care access to measurement of blood glucose and cardiovascular risk assessment as well as
need for increased understanding of the economic, and societal seriousness of diabetes and its complications, and of the escalating costs to individuals, families, workplaces, society and governments.
In the United States and in many other countries around the world more children are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In the past, children who were diagnosed with diabetes were diagnosed with type 1. Type 1 diabetes affects many children in which they are unable to produce insulin. However, as times have changed children are now being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes which is a chronic illness that usually affects adults. Type 2 diabetes develops when the person is not able to produce enough insulin, and if insulin is being produce it is not effective. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes are type 2 (2012). About 215,000 children in the United States are
According to the American Diabetes Association (2016), more Americans die each year from diabetes than from AIDS and breast cancer combined. As a result, researchers have extensively studied the causes, treatments, and interventions for diabetes. Despite efforts to ameliorate its effects, diabetes remains a prevalent danger in society. In 2014, 7% of U.S. adults were living with diagnosed diabetes (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2016). In Louisiana that number was even higher - 10.4% of adults have been diagnosed with diabetes. Breaking it down by age group, however, in Louisiana 3% of people aged 18 and 44 have been diagnosed, and 15.2% of people 45-64. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2015a). Several studies have predicted future rates of diabetes, both in the United States and worldwide - nearly all of these studies reached a similar conclusion: rates of diabetes will continue to rise (Boyle et al., 2001).
Nearly 16 million people in the United States have diabetes, the disease classified as a problem with insulin. The problem could be that your body does not make insulin, does not make enough, or it simply does not know how to use it properly. Diabetes is also known as "diabetes mellitus".
There are many people who are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes and who may currently qualify as a pre-diabetic. Risk
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that "occurs when the body is unable to produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that allows blood glucose to enter the cells of the body and generate the body's energy" (Ebony, 115). Diabetes is a disease that affects approximately 3% of the world' population. In American alone, 10.3 million people report having diabetes, while an estimated 10 million more individuals may have undiagnosed diabetes (Morwessel, 540). The gene for diabetes is located in the HLA region on chromosome 6, and the most probable organization of the responsible gene is on a 19-kb region of INS-IGF2, which affects HLA-DR4 IDDM susceptibility. Diabetes Mellitus, was first diagnosed in the year 1000 BC, by the
What was once thought to be found only among adults has become one of the most common chronic diseases among children in the United States. Ordinarily, when diabetes strikes during childhood it is assumed to be type 1. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study began in 2000 and has provided the most comprehensive estimates of the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes among youth less than 20 years of age in the US (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that annually, an estimated 18,436 youth are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and 5,089 youth are diagnosed with type 2 among youth. In the last two decades, type 2 diabetes, has been reported among U.S. children and adolescents with increasing frequency. Disease researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention made the prediction that one in three children born in the United States in 2000 will likely develop type 2 diabetes sometime in their lifetime unless they get more exercise and improve their diets, particularly for Latino children (CDC, 2014). Without changes in diet and exercise, their odds of developing diabetes as they grow older was about 50-50.
Diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body produces too little insulin (Type One Diabetes) or can’t use available insulin efficiently ( Type Two Diabetes). Insulin is a hormone vital to helping the body use digested food for growth and energy.
In New Zealand, regardless of ethnicity or socio-economic status, T1DM is the most common form of diabetes in children and adolescents (Jefferies, Owens, & Wiltshire, 2015) Additionally, New Zealand reflects the rate of increase of incidence of T1DM worldwide which is three to 3-5% annually (Jefferies et al., 2015). This is an important health issue because it affects the expected lifespan of the person afflicted (WHO, 2016) mainly due to cardiovascular disease and other complication of diabetes (J. W. Little et