Discovering Water Hardness Lab Report

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Discovering Water Hardness Lab Report

Brittany Basinger

Thursday March 26, 2015

Chemistry 111

Group Members:
Katherine Heininger Andrew Beckett
Drew Bednarski

TA:
Joe Fortenbaugh

Introduction

Water is essential for all living things to survive. Without water, life would be impossible. Seventy percent of the world is covered by water but only 2.5 percent is fresh water. (1) Not only is freshwater used for domestic and personal purposes, it is also used for irrigation, thermoelectric, industrial and agriculture. (2) Although freshwater seems to be untarnished, it regularly contains a variety of solutes ranging from gas in the environment to inorganic salts and minerals of rocks. Due to the ions dissolved, the water has a possibility to be hard or soft.
Water hardness is defined as the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in the water. (2) In order to have hard water, calcium (Ca^(2+)) and magnesium (Mg^(2+)) need to have a high concentration of both ions dissolved into the water. Depending on the amount of dissolved minerals, water hardness has the possibility of being detected without actually experimentally testing for it. Have you ever felt like you still had residue on your hands after washing with soap? This is the effect of the calcium ions reacting with the soap. These effects have no effects for humans when drinking this water but industries worry about their water’s hardness for one main reason.
Studying water hardness is important because

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