Dissertation Proposal: An investigation of empathy and social problem solving among different bullying groups: A study of male prisoners.
A. Formulation of Research Question
‘What works’ research suggests that cognitive behavioural interventions produce the most effective recidivism results among offender populations. Therefore, it would be just to suggest that this type of intervention would be beneficial when reducing bullying and victimisation within the same population.
Cognitive deficits that are related to offending attitudes and behaviour include social problem solving (Freedman, Rosenthal, Donahoe, Schlindt and McFall, 1978), and empathy (Covell and Scalora, 2002) among others.
As bullying is an interaction with …show more content…
However, because direct/indirect forms of bullying are being measured the full purpose of the study will be explained when debriefing occurs; immediately proceeding tests to reduce any emotional stress that may have occurred. Lastly participants will have the opportunity to receive research summaries and will be given details of how to obtain these.
A percentage of results will be used to check accuracy via inputting means, standard deviations and minimum and maximum scoring of questionnaires, ensuring missing values are categorised correctly. Missing value analysis will be used to identify any trends and managed appropriately. If outliers are identified, transformation, alteration or deletion will commence. The skew and kurtosis will be tested for significance. Tests for homogeneity of variance will be performed and managed appropriately. Descriptive statistics will be obtained followed by between-subjects analyses e.g. ANOVA or MANOVA.
To avoid discrimination on illiteracy grounds, participants will complete study material in individual interviews. This may have an impact upon honesty as participants may be guarded when expressing truthfulness because of fears of repercussions. This can be overcome by giving appropriate information packs and offering individual time outside of interviews. This method would also alleviate victims and bullies completing study material in group settings, thus avoiding
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Have you ever been a target of an individual’s cruelty and hatred? It does not necessarily have to be physical, but more like being verbally degraded or publicly humiliated. The effects bullying can have on its victims is something that may last throughout their lives, or something that may end their life(Braithwaite, Hyde, Pope, 2010).We all are well aware of childhood bullying but as evidence shows bullying does not stop on the
Bullying is said to be a major influence in “incidents of school violence” ( “School Bullying” 2). Bullying early in someone’s life is related to later issues such as suic ide intentions, anxiety, self-esteem, and other conditions that can last into their adulthood. But the victims are not the only ones affected. Bullies have increased health problems and have a hard tim e with relationships. They are more likely to commit crimes at a younger age.
In the article PERSONAL HEALTH; A Bully’s Future From Hard Life to Hard Tim it states “ children who bullied their victims were most likely to engage in violent behaviors then those who had never been involved in bullying. With this it proves how that if they had a punishment that they took serious and was talked to and knew people worried and cared about them they wouldn't be engaged in violent behaviors and would be able to deal with their emotions without violent behaviors.
The third and final study simply explored the harmful effects of bullying and how they came to be. They interviewed children and surveyed adults who were victims of bullying at some point in their lives. Some of the more common short term effects they discovered include anger, anxiety, depression, interference with work or school and suicidal thoughts. Uncovered patterns of long term effects include self-esteem issues, difficulty trusting others, bitterness, and increased risk of being bullied in the future. (Lynch, E.
The author supports her points by inserting numbers and reliable sources to the article. Researching and citing made this article more credible and more pleasant to read. Also, the author separated each section by putting a tittle, and by doing that it helps readers to comprehend more what she wants to explain or show to the reader. Putting references helped facilitate to the reader more information that helped support the authors objective about “bullying.”.
She describes that confronting the bully, by fightback, sharing with friend and family for intervention, are different strategies used by victims. In some case the victim is unable to equalize this power over the bully. Which can prolong, ongoing humiliation dealing with issues, such as divorce in the family, drastic learning disabilities, as well as chronic illness potently can cause a breaking point. Having low self-esteem, depression, and suicidal and homicidal ideations. Some victims carry the hurt of bullying into adulthood. More or less victims tend to lose faith in other people for comfort and support. She contends “the adverse social and emotional consequences of bullying victimization do not support the idea that bullying builds character. Victimization may build character for a tiny proportion of the population.” (Kuykendall 2012). Bullying for the most part can be traumatic and painful should not be silently approved. Bullies hold social power than the victims. However attacks arise from frustration. Provocative victims are typically sincerely sorry and very apologetic after an attack, a reflection of genuine or low self-esteem. True bullies consume high self-esteem.
| Based on explicit knowledge and this can be easy and fast to capture and analyse.Results can be generalised to larger populationsCan be repeated – therefore good test re-test reliability and validityStatistical analyses and interpretation are
Despite correctional facilities being avenues for behavior corrections, many offensive behaviors are prevalent. These behaviors or offenses include; rape, sexual violence among others criminal offences. According to Dumond & Dumond (2015), there is a very stinging need
However, their second survey was for the teachers asking them questions such as: how frequently have you seen bullying? What part of the school? And the extent to which they address bullying with their students. On the other hand, the second article had an approach towards school psychologists and nurses. School psychologists were asked to take a deeper leadership in developing “comprehensive approaches to bullying prevention.” And school nurses are asked to to bring a healthier environment to the school and to be able to recognize the victims and the bullies. Nevertheless, both articles were trying to test a way to prevent bullying from
A single version of a self-report questionnaire was constructed and used containing three sections of Likert scale questions dealing with bullying instances and experiences, the psychological stability of students, and student’s academic performance.
The most important step in order to analyze the topic of Bullying is to formulate questions on what is bullying. The cause, effect, and who is the target. The questions should be based on effective evidence, and the characteristic of the topic. Also, they should ask what questions you think would be of interest and of importance for other people to know about bullying. From these questions I should be able to organize information needed for this topic.
Not only are bullied children anxious, depressed, and underachieving during the months and years of their torment, but even years later, they have lower self-esteem as well as painful memories. 7 The picture is somewhat different, but often more ominous, for bullies. Contrary to the public perception that bullies are actually insecure and lonely, at the peak of their bullying they usually have friends who abet, fear, and admire them, and they seem brashly unapologetic about the pain they have inflicted, as they often claim, "all in fun." But their popularity and school success fade over the years, and especially if they are boys, they run a high risk of ending up in prison. In one longitudinal study done by Olweus, by age 24, two-thirds of the boys who had been bullies in the second grade were convicted of at least one felony, and one- third of those who had been bullies in the sixth through the ninth grades were already convicted of three or more crimes, often violent ones. International research likewise finds that children who are allowed to regularly victimize other children are at high risk of becoming violent offenders as adolescents and adults. 8 Unfortunately, bullying during middle childhood seems to be universal: it occurs in every nation that has been studied, is as much a problem in small