Drugs And Substance Use Disorders Essay

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“Substance Use Disorders” are new to the DSM-5. Previously, the terms “abuse” and “dependence” where used instead. In general, the DSM-5 considers a Substance Use Disorder to be recurrent drug use that causes impairment and continued use, despite substance use related problems. The DSM-5 also focuses on how substance use causes a change in brain functioning. The change is primarily responsible for intense drug cravings, as well as repeated relapses. Finally, the DSM-5 divides use into four groups, including impaired control, social impairment, risky use, and pharmacological criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).
One category of substance use disorders is opioid use disorder. Opioids are pain relievers that bind to opioid receptors on nerve cells throughout the body. Opioids can be divided into three categories, including opiates, semi-synthetic opioids, and synthetic opioids. Opiates are derived directly from opium poppies, and include morphine and codeine. Semi-Synthetic Opioids are derived from Opiates, and include hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone, as well as heroin. The third category is synthetic opioids, which are not derived from opiates and include drugs such as fentanyl, buprenorphine, and methadone (Schiff, 2002). All opioids produce feelings of euphoria, tranquility and sedation (Schuckit, 2016). However, opioids are “considered the most harmful of all illicit drugs” (Amato et al., 2005, p.321).
The DSM-5 criteria for opioid use

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