Dysplasia Research Paper

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Cancers seem to develop progressively. There will be intermediate stages between those normal cells and highly altered cells. Hyperplasia is the first stage in which cells look normal but with increased cell number. Next stage is dysplasia, characterized by more cytologically abnormal cells. Dysplasia is followed by metastasis stage, where cells can invade new tissues. During transformation from normal cells to altered cells, either inhibition of tumor suppressor gene or activation of anti-apoptotic genes happen. Almost in all cancers, cell cycles regulators are mutated. Main hallmarks of cancer include induction of angiogenesis, activation of the oncogene, suppression of apoptotic or tumor suppressor gene, activation …show more content…

It includes multiple possible causes like mutation, environmental factors, psychological factors, chemicals or mutagens, viral or bacterial infection, etc. Mutations in certain genes like oncogene,tumor suppressor gene, etc act as drivers of cancer. By this mutation, they can either inhibit apoptosis or activate oncogenes division and cause cancer. Some mutation of host genes helps in hiding themselves from immune system also. Exposure to mutagens, substance that can cause mutation also play a role in cancer. All mutagens are not necessarily carcinogenic, but some are like food presevative AF 2, ethylene dibromide, etc. It is reported that risk of developing cancer corelates with workplace,where the possibility of exposure to certain mutagens or carcinogens are higher. Proper diet and exercise can prevent it to an extent. Use of high salt diet can leads to gastric or colon …show more content…

Oncoviruses are of three types : DNA viruses like Herpes simplex virus, Hepatitis B virus, SV40 virus, Polyomavirus, Adenovirus, Papillomavirus, and RNA viruses like Hepatitis C virus, and viruses having both DNA and RNA genome like Retrovirus. Mechanism of tumorigenesis is different for various viruses. Direct viral mechanism includes either insertion of viral genome into host or to activate existing

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