Scientific research into the dynamics of urban heat islands and possible remedies to the problem are vital in the cause of balancing human activities with environmental sustainability. The urgent and imminent environmentally and economically damaging effects of urban heat islands are concerning topics which necessitate equally as drastic solutions, some of which have already begun to be instated, but may not go far enough in protecting our planet. This paper discusses the present measures put in place to help improve urban heat islands, what the future may have in store without further work, and why our planet’s fate greatly depends on these measures. Furthermore, an in depth discussion regarding additional measures that can be effectively and efficiently used to improve urban heat islands will be explored. As aware citizens, individual and collective responsibility in respects to urban heat islands will be central in neutralizing the urban heat island crisis, and action must be taken before it is too late. An urban heat island is a metropolitan area that suffers from recurrent high temperatures compared to the cooler temperatures of its rural surroundings. There are many factors that contribute to the creation of urban heat islands, but if proper adjustment is done to albedo, architecture, and vegetation, there will be an effective and efficient reduction in city temperatures. Recent studies have shown that urban temperatures are gradually rising, and this dynamic is
The journal article is titled Adaptation: How can cities be “climate proofed”. The author poses a rhetoric question to his audience which entails the American population as well as the global population. The title puts to task the reader’s mind on what to expect in the article. He takes us back to July 1995 when the effects of climate change was felt in an American state of Chicago. The state was hit by a scorching heat wave which resulted in the death of seven hundred and thirty nine people. The residents who were affected comprised mostly the African-American population.
The study conducted by Coutts et al. in 2006 on the effects of urban density on local climate of Melbourne found that the move towards a more compact city (as directed in the Melbourne 2030 vision) with built-up activity will not only increase the urban surface and canopy temperatures in high density areas like CBD, but also extend the seasonal exposure to unfavorable climatic conditions (Coutts et al. 491). However, improvements in climate at activity centers are being made by employing various strategies. The available energy is being reduced through the use of lighter-colored building and roofing materials to increase albedo. Also, more and more activity centers are now being equipped with ecological rooftop gardens to increase the evaporative fraction and by establishing within-canopy vegetation, surfaces temperatures and Bowen ratios are being reduced (Coutts et al.
When flat and crowded intersect you get the energy supply and demand problem. David Douglas, a chief sustainability officer for a corporation used this analogy: if you give 1 billion people a 60 watt incandescent light bulb and they all use their light bulbs four hours a day, that’s 10,000 watts at any given moment. You would still need about twenty new 500 megawatt coal burning plants just so the next 1 billion people can turn on their lights (68). We also have to keep in mind that burning coal releases CO2 and other pollutants into the air which then effects global warming. We have now brought in the concept of hot. Friedman also gives the example of the cities Doha and Dalian who have rapidly grown sprouting a “mini Manhattan” leading to much higher energy consumptions. He called this high consumption an “America lifestyle” saying that affluenza, the “unsustainable addition to economic growth was spreading all over the world
Global warming and climate change is one of the most pressing issues in the contemporary society given its continued impacts on human life and the world’s ecosystem. The considerable effects of this issue have raised huge concerns among policymakers, governments, and the public. As a result, various initiatives have been developed in attempts to lessen global warming or climate change, especially those related to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases to the Earth’s atmosphere. Governments across the globe including the United Kingdom government have adopted various policies that focus on dealing with the issue. There are various policies that help in dealing with the issue including lessening greenhouse gases emissions, adapting to the effects of climate change, and geo-engineering of the climate system. The attempts by the UK government to address this problem require an understanding of the increasing energy demands and its future impact and use of suitable renewable energy sources.
In Phoenix, Arizona, today, more than 40 flights have been cancelled — because it was very hot for the planes to fly. That is very dangerous and unacceptable. But that is the reality of what we are seeing with our climate this days. Global warming is one of the critical issues facing the world today. Global warming is the gradual increase in the earth’s atmospheric temperature. Naturally occurring gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone and water vapor trap heat from the sun, preventing it from leaving the atmosphere. If Global warming continues the world would be in danger. This essay will examine the problem of global warming and suggest some ways of solving the problem.
Recently, the environment issues are becoming more and more serious. The increasing of greenhouse gas emission and pollutions lead to many environment problems related to climate change. The climate change impact our urban life in many aspects. As the biggest metropolitan area in US, New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area has a population about 19,831,858 by year 2012 (U.S. Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau, 2012) The population has been increased by 1.35% since 2010. The increase of population again increase the consuming of resources and increase the carbon dioxide of the statistical area which aggravate the global warming. At this moment, planners and government should take the impacts from climate change that will be critical concern to our area into consideration and applying a climate change management planning policies.
The report states that there is a correlation between increased daily temperatures and increased deaths, illnesses and hospitalizations and that living in urban areas increases vulnerability to heat exposure. These higher temperatures in urban areas are attributed to a lack of vegetation, waste heat from vehicles and buildings and the size of the city. Low-income neighborhoods are especially vulnerable as they lack the resources to adapt to the heat. The study reports that green projects reduce exposure to multiple pollutants and help mitigate urban heat. This report was a culmination of 102 studies and research projects from many credible academic papers. The David Suzuki Foundation is a world-renown conservation organization. This report will be used to show the benefits of trees and expanding urban green spaces such as combatting pollution and enhancing the health of inner-city
Over the last several decades, global climate change has been scientifically proven to be a result of human activity (“Carbon Dioxide Emissions”). Industrial processes, fossil fuel combustion, and changes in land use have altered the balance of greenhouse gases (GHG’s) in the Earth’s atmosphere. (City of New York et al. 2013) By increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide and other GHG’s in Earth’s atmosphere, our modern society is gradually warming the planet and altering its climate (“Carbon Dioxide Emissions”). Most recently, a March 2012 study found that climatic changes resulting from a warming planet have already increased the frequency of extreme weather events, “most notably heat waves and precipitation extremes” (“Carbon Dioxide Emissions”). As New York experienced not too long ago with Hurricane Sandy, the Earth’s climate and weather patterns have responded to such changes, with increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, loss of animal and plant species, impacts to human health, disruption of ecosystems, and other effects (City of New York et al. 2013) Such effects of human-induced climate change present potential threats to the infrastructure, economy, and health of not only New York City but the entire U.S.
The June 2007 , Change in the Air article thoroughly explains and discusses the new ideas and plans that the municipal government of Toronto is bound to enforce within the near future. Climate change is the single biggest issue that the planet currently faces. The City of Toronto is commited to face the challenge through environmental leadership and a sustainable future for all Torontonians. To adress this following challenge, Torontonians are encouraged to adopt more enviromentally friendly lifestyles. Some plans of many that the city is willing to enforce. Some of these programs incldue, “The Live Green Toronto program”, create a City-delivered “one-window” source of information on federal, provincial, municipal, private sector and community programs related to energy and other environmental issues, establish new standards to require and regulate green roofs in the City, and update the Green Development Standard accordingly, as well among other plans. If Toronto goes along with these respective plans it will help Toronto become a leader in local energy reproduction, which will help Toronto build a sustainable transport system. If Toronto goes along with this plan, we will see Toronto Tree canopy icrease drastically from 17%
With increased construction and new developments, cities are turning more into a concrete jungle every year. Unfortunately, the consequences of this have a big impact on the environment. The loss of green spaces and rise of glass and concrete buildings is having a harmful effect on the air quality and takes away natural wildlife habitats; which in turn has a negative effect on people in the area. The reduction in permeable land surfaces is in essence waterproofing our cities and therefore putting the existing drainage systems under more pressure. Ultimately, urban expansion as it is, is not socially or environmentally sustainable and researchers have identified that London’s biggest short-term risk is the risk of surface water flooding. (Mayor of London, 2011)
Urban Island Heat Effect: how cities are warmer than surrounding rural areas because of the many buildings, roads, parking lots, and other structures that replace natural vegetation. Due to the replacement of natural vegetation this results in more of the sun’s energy being absorbed and retained in urban areas compared to rural areas; leading to urban areas cooling at a much slower rate than rural areas at night. This study aimed to investigate whether urban areas, due to the amount of asphalt coverage, would be warmer and retain it’s heat longer than rural areas after sunset. The hypothesis was that urban areas would be warmer and retain it’s heat longer than rural areas after sunset since urban areas have more asphalt coverage. Data temperature
The temperatures in urban areas, especially cities with concentrated buildings, are usually higher than the rural areas nearby. The temperature differences varies from 1 °C to 3 °C. In the evening, the difference can be as large as 10 °C. The factors that influences the temperature differences include the size of the urban areas and the activities
The increasing amount of green house gases (GHG) released in the atmosphere is causing significant changes in the environment leading to unpredictable weather patterns and warming of the climate system is putting a great pressure on city development and infrastructures. This essay outlines three problems caused by climate change in urban areas, and evaluates the effectiveness of some of the mitigation and adaptation strategies. This essay reasons that mitigation and adaptation strategies need to work in synergy in order to address the situation effectively.
At the city level, we need more trees, everywhere I park, I find it quite challenging to find shade to park under to prevent my vehicle from getting unbearably hot. Reducing the amount of urban heat emanating from blacktop concrete can reduce the overall amount of urban heat for an area. Capturing carbon energy and water in cities is another area of opportunity for cities to improve efficiency while applying a holistic approach to city sustainability. Captured greywater can be reused water to flush refuse.
Thesis statement: It is important that the governments and people find solution for Global Warming problem and decrease the buildings and greenhouses emission, cut down the industrial waste heat, and encourage people to use biofuel in their vehicles.