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Essay On Anatomy And Physiology

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UNDERLYING CONCEPTS
A. Theoretical Background
1. Anatomy and Physiology The major function of the respiratory system is to supply the body with oxygen and to dispose of carbon dioxide. To do this, at least four distinct events, collectively called respiration, must occur. Pulmonary ventilation is when air moves in and out of the lungs so that gasses in the air sacs are continuously refreshed, and this process is commonly called breathing. External respiration is when gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and alveoli takes place. Respiratory gas transport is when oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported to and from the lungs and tissue cells of the body via the bloodstream. Internal respiration is when systemic capillaries, gas exchanges are made between the blood and tissue cells. To take breathe in, there are mechanical activities that must occur. Rule is the volume changes leading to pressure changes, which leads to the flow of gasses to equalize pressure. Inspiration is when air flows into the lungs, chest is expanded laterally,
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Chemical factors are the most important factors that modify respiratory rate and depth. The levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the blood, increased levels of carbon dioxide and decreased blood pH are the most important stimuli leading to an increase in the rate and depth of breathing, while a decrease in oxygen levels become important stimuli when the levels are dangerously low. Hyperventilation blows off more carbon dioxide and decreases the amount of carbonic acid, which returns blood pH to normal range when carbon dioxide or other sources of acids begin to accumulate in the blood. Hypoventilation or extremely slow or shallow breathing allows carbon dioxide to accumulate in the blood and brings blood pH back into normal range when blood starts to become slightly
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