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Essay On Dyspepsia

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Gastrointestinal diseases are very common in different populations, and many physicians spend a great deal of time and energy to treat these disorders carefully worldwide (Pasalar). Dyspepsia consists of a heterogeneous group of symp¬toms that are localized in the epigastric region, and can be broadly defined as pain or discomfort that is centered in the upper abdomen (particularly the epigastrium) (nature). Functional dyspepsia, a relapsing and remitting disorder, is the most common cause of these symptoms (nejm).
Dyspepsia can be functional (dysmotility like) or structural (ulcer like). Although clinical evaluation is required to determine whether dyspepsia in an individual is functional or structural, endoscopic studies have shown that
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Symptoms must be chronic, occurring at least weekly and over a period of at least 6 months, in the absence of an organic explanation(nejm). The rome III criteria has divided functional dyspepsia into two subgroups: postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). Patients with PDS typically report postprandial fullness and early satiation. Whereas those with EPS are more likely to experience epigastric pain and burning differently (nature). Functional dyspepsia may be confused with other gastrointestinal conditions outside the gastroduodenal region including other functional disorders such as GERD or Irritable bowel syndrome but there are some symptoms which helps the physician to discriminate between these diseases (nejm). Patients who report alarm symptoms should be referred urgently for upper GI endoscopy. For patients with simple dyspepsia who do not have alarm symptoms the requirement for any further diagnostic test depends on the background prevalence of helicobacter pylori infection
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