Essay On Hippocampus

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3. Review of literature

3.1 The hippocampus and Cognition
Hippocampus belongs to the limbic system of the brain. In 1960, O'Keefe and Lynn Nadel continued to investigate the functions of hippocampus. The behavioural inhibition theory was defined and justified many questions regarding functions of hippocampus. Eventually their investigations have been published an influential book, “The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map” (O'Keefe et al, 1978). The spatial coding such as spatial memory and navigation is the functions of hippocampus are universally accepted as with the memory theory (Nadel et al, 1975; Moser et al, 2008). Simultaneously full-fledged work was conducted to investigate the functions of the hippocampus related with anxiety. Connections between cerebral cortex and associated areas
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This electrophysiological study showed that the possible cause of neuronal deficit is by back-propagation of action potentials (bAPs) and Ca2+ transient currents altered after chronic alcohol exposure in vitro model. These electrophysiological changes affect metaplasticity and signal transduction in hippocampal neurons (Patrick et al, 2015). Immediate and early gene studies implicate the role of Hippocampus dependent and hippocampus independent amnesic features in alcohol induced memory impairment animal models. The repeated doses of ethanol (.5mg-2mg/kg/i.p) interacting with neurotransmitter system (GABA) of hippocampus and generated the behavioural deficits. They concluded that elucidation of neurotransmitter systems is most important in alcohol related cognitive disorders. (Ryabinin et al., 1998). Similar studies have focused the effects of psychotrophic drugs and drugs of abuse such as cocaine, opioids, nicotine and alcohol on hippocampal neurogenesis. They have shown the negative results of neural proliferation and cell survival. (He et al,
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