Several studies around the world studied the benefits and efficacy of artificial pancreas insulin delivery system which is also referred to as a closed loop control system. In research studies, these terms are used interchangeably and apply to the same glucose control system. In the most research trials, comparison between artificial pancreas system and sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy was made in reference to efficacy of one system versus another to achieve tighter glycemic control and the ability to reduce the occurrence of hypoglycemia episodes (Brown, et al., 2015; Hovorka et al., 2014; Kovatchev et al., 2014; Kropff et al., 2015; Leelarathna et al., 2014; Nimri et al., 2014; Phillip et al., 2013; Tauschmann et al., 2016). These …show more content…
In contrast, a year earlier, Hovorka et al. (2014) conducted a crossover research study with similar hypothesis, however this study was three weeks in duration with prolonged evaluation of a closed loop control system under free living conditions. In addition, Brown et al. (2015) and Hovorka et al. (2014) studies recruited different populations of type 1 diabetes mellitus patients. Brown et al. (2015) conducted the study with patients 21-65 years of age, where Hovorka et al. (2014) researched the benefits of CLC in adolescence, ages 12-18 years. Hovorka et al. (2014) performed the research with 16 type 1 diabetic patients, which were recruited from Pediatric Diabetes Clinics at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, U.K and University College Hospital, London, U.K. Similarly to Hovorka et al (2014), Phillip et al. (2013) and Touschmann et al. (2016) recruited adolescents when conducting their studies. In both cases, adolescents ages 10-18 years, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes underwent randomized crossover design contrasting closed loop control and sensor augmented insulin pump therapy (Phillip et al., 2013; Touschmann et al., 2016). These studies were conducted in free living conditions where all participants had no restriction in food and sporting activities. In other words, participants were able to adhere to a routine daily schedule and were closely supervised by the researchers at the time of study when standard hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia treatment
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Our clinical group elected to do this semester’s teaching project on correct insulin administration. This topic is relevant because millions of Americans are currently affected with diabetes. Correct administration of the insulin injection is necessary for proper absorption, and also to prevent a condition where fat accumulates under the skin from injections called lipohypertrophy. This information is fundamental in the nursing process, due to nurses frequently administer insulin to patients, as well as play a vital role in patient education. Research has indicated that many patients do not recall receiving any education on how to administer insulin correctly. For our teaching, we created a poster to hang in the staff restroom on the ICU West floor at Redmond Medical
There is a device called the bionic pancreas that is being developed by Ed Damiano, whose son, David was diagnosed with diabetes in 2000, gave him the inspiration to find a cure. For nearly fifteen years he has been researching and working on this project. There have been hundreds of successful trials of people with diabetes using the bionic pancreas and the feedback has been mostly positive. Some say the device as life changing. “At the end of one recent trial, an 11-year-old boy liked the bionic pancreas so much that he ran away from the investigators conducting the test, and it took them over an hour to get the device back" (Sifferlin 42+). There has been progress in all types of people. Sifferlin says "The bionic pancreas has successfully worked in people ages 6-76 and weighing 47 lb. to 283 lb." (42+). The bionic pancreas does also have a pain free, easy method of glucose testing since the device checks it continuously. The only requirement for the device to work properly is simply punching in the person's weight (Russell et al. 2148). Unlike the bionic pancreas, islet cell transplantation is limited in becoming a global treatment because of the lack of supply of islet cells. This is due to the fact that there are more people with type 1 diabetes than there are donor pancreases (Islet Transplantation). The bionic pancreas does not have limitations on the device itself that would prevent it from being produced all over the world. In other words, with proper funding the bionic pancreas can be produced for all diabetics. Damiano hopes to have the bionic pancreas affordable and on the market by
All patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and many patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) require insulin therapy at some point to adequately manage their disease state.5 Traditional treatment of DM therapy, which ultimately includes subcutaneous injection of insulin, is often met with apprehension among diabetic patients due to the inconvenience and discomfort of injecting oneself. Administration of insulin by methods other than injection has been investigated since the discovery of insulin in the 1920s.6One such
In the US, diabetes contributes significantly to excess morbidity and mortality. When uncontrolled, it is a major cause of stroke, heart attacks, chronic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, and is the major cause of non-traumatic amputations. It is also increases the risk of death two-fold compared to someone without diabetes . However, among those patients with better control, a reduction in hemoglobin A1C has been shown to decrease the risk of kidney disease , progression of CHF , and an overall decrease in microvascular complications . There is a definite benefit of close blood glucose monitoring and control. In type 2 diabetes, characterized by insulin resistance, the standard of care for mild-moderate disease is oral agents, with transition to subcutaneous insulin as the disease progresses. In type 1 diabetes, characterized by lack of insulin, the treatment depends on either an insulin pump or subcutaneous insulin therapy. Unfortunately, in those patients with insulin dependent diabetes, compliance with finger stick glucose measurements is poor, making insulin administration dependent on those measurements imprecise . One solution to this problem that has been proposed is continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). This system consists of a subcutaneously implanted glucose sensor that wirelessly transmits data to a recorder worn on the body. This allows for frequent (generally a few times an
1 January 2017. The purpose of this source is for general scientific research and understanding diabetes. This gives the view on ongoing research, equipment modifications, changes in governmental regulations and the constant flow of information relating to the use of medicines, equipment and
All throughout History, the condition of Diabetes has been recorded and studied, while producing minimal results. Relative to the span of around 3,500 years, Diabetes has been known to be a distinct medical condition, while causes not to be discovered until generally the early 20th century (Brar). On average, around 2000+ people are diagnosed with Diabetes every day. Around 800,000 people are diagnosed with Diabetes every year. People who have Diabetes are generally encouraged to exercise and must eat from a specific diet. Exercises mostly include aerobics and balanced insulin levels with other exercise techniques (Kelly).
The development of insulin saved many lives throughout the 1920’s. Insulin allows your body to turn blood sugar into energy, and diabetes patients don’t have an important hormone called insulin. In fact, thousands of people had this issue. In the 1900’s, the only treatments for diabetes were starvation diets and very strict exercise program. Dr. Frederick Bating, the inventor of insulin, had spent a lot of his time studying the disease of diabetes. He thought if he could isolate insulin in animals, it would be possible to use it to treat people with diabetes. Later on his theory proved to be correct. Dr. Frederick Banting needed a lab to test his theory and work on it so he could have insulin mass produced and treat the disease of diabetes.
During the 1920’s, many discoveries happened in the medical field. In particular, a major discovery was insulin. It helps save many lives since the 1920’s until today. The discovery of insulin resulted in a Nobel Peace Prize. It is an extremely significant hormone in the body of humans and animals. There are many facts people should be aware of about insulin like how it became discovered, what it is, and how it helps treat diabetes.
Diabetes is a very common chronic medial disorder and expected to be a big medical challenge of the twenty first century (Clark, 2004). It is a condition, in which the glucose level in the blood becomes so high that the body is unable to utilize it properly. This long-term condition results when the pancreas of the victim is either not able to produce enough insulin (sometimes even cannot produce any insulin) or the insulin produced cannot work properly. Diabetes is divided into two main types: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1, also known as insulin dependent diabetes milletus (Masharani, 2008) cannot be prevent while Type 2 can be prevented but if the patient is at pre-diabetes stage.
It hasn’t been until just recently where biomechanical engineers have gotten close to doing just that. With the idea of the artificial pancreas being a dream just a couple years ago, the dream is becoming a reality right in front of us. The diabetes community is coming together to rejoice the artificial pancreas, which some companies are just months away from completing the loop of the system. With complicated algorithms and precise readings of blood glucose levels, the bionic pancreas looks as if it will have only positive effects. However, there is always a chance for this 21st century advancement to fail. Failure to proceed correct readings and appropriate dosage of insulin or glucagon could result in fatal complications and even death. Although a very slim chance of these failures to happen, there is always a possibility, but studies and research is looking very positive. The FDA has approved many products already, but most are still waiting to be furnished and made better. The artificial pancreas is an advancement that will change the medical field, both professional and patient, for centuries to
Sporting events, church activities, chores, playing and homework take up most of a child’s waking hours. The monitoring and treatment of this disease affects everything the child does and in turn affects the entire family. Keeping the insulin levels within normal limits requires diligent monitoring of blood glucose levels and managing the child’s diet is extremely important. When blood glucose levels fall out of the normal range the main treatment for Type 1 Diabetes requires insulin therapy. The Insulin therapy is needed to replace or supplement what insulin the body can’t provide. Some factors that affect blood glucose levels are: insulin, food, activity, exercise, and stress ( Daneman, Frank & Perlman,1999). Because of the difficulties that families with child diabetes face it is hard for the families not to revolve everything they do around the child. Although there is no easy answer to this problem HK Akerblom explains it well,“ Insulin therapy should be fitted into the daily schedule and way of life of the child and the family, rather than the child and family living their lives according to a strict timetable determined by the insulin therapy”(1998).
Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar)1 . In 2011 The American Diabetes Association repoted a 25.8 million people in America living with diabetes 2. Diabetes is a illness that can be caused by the body not being able to produce enough insulin and or cells in the body not responding adequately to the insulin provided. Insulin which is produced by the pancrease, regulates the amount of glucose (which provieds energy to all cells) in the blood.
What was once thought to be found only among adults has become one of the most common chronic diseases among children in the United States. Ordinarily, when diabetes strikes during childhood it is assumed to be type 1. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study began in 2000 and has provided the most comprehensive estimates of the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes among youth less than 20 years of age in the US (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reports that annually, an estimated 18,436 youth are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and 5,089 youth are diagnosed with type 2 among youth. In the last two decades, type 2 diabetes, has been reported among U.S. children and adolescents with increasing frequency. Disease researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention made the prediction that one in three children born in the United States in 2000 will likely develop type 2 diabetes sometime in their lifetime unless they get more exercise and improve their diets, particularly for Latino children (CDC, 2014). Without changes in diet and exercise, their odds of developing diabetes as they grow older was about 50-50.
Diabetes is a systemic disease caused by a decrease in the secretion of insulin or reduced sensitivity or responsiveness to insulin by target tissue. (Beale, et al., 2011) The incidence of diabetes is growing rapidly in the United States and worldwide. An estimated 347 million people around the world are afflicted with diabetes. (Whalen, et al., 2012) According to World Health Organization (WHO), Diabetes prevalence among adults over 18 years of age has risen from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014. It is the major cause of blindness, kidney failure, heart attack, stroke and limbic amputation. World Health Organization (WHO) projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. It is a complex and costly disease that can affect nearly every organ in the body and result in devastating consequences. The leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations, renal failure, and blindness in working-age adults, diabetes is also a major cause of premature mortality, stroke, cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital malformations, perinatal mortality, and disability. (Cefalu, 2000) Insulin therapy and oral hypoglycemic agents have demonstrated improvement in glycaemic control. However, Insulin therapy has some disadvantages such as ineffectiveness following oral administration, short shelf life, of the need for constant refrigeration, and fatal hypoglycaemia, in the event of excess dosage.