There are many different language delays and disorders found in the pediatric population. Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is one of the most common of these disorders. Dr. Libby Kumin defines CAS as “a motor speech disorder where children have difficulty planning, coordinating, producing and sequencing speech sounds” (Kumin, n.d.). Apraxia does not occur because of weakness or paralysis of facial and oral muscles. It occurs when a child’s brain cannot properly plan the movement of body parts necessary for normal speech production (“Childhood Apraxia,” 2011). Though CAS is the most common name for this specific disorder, it is also referred to as a variety of other names. Some of these names include: dyspraxia, developmental
The cleft needs to be repaired (through surgical interventions like palatoplasty) because it’s extremely important for feeding and swallowing, as well as speech. Similar to sleep, without sufficient nutrition, an individual will not be able to fully develop. A lack of sufficient nutrition will affect an individual’s cognitive ability, as well as their physical health. This is why surgical intervention is such a critical component of the process and one of the steps that is completed earlier on in the process. In addition to cleft palates, velopharyngeal insufficiency is a common symptom for about forty percent of individuals with TCS, and is often related to a cleft palate. Velopharyngeal insufficiency can be related to issues with breathing and feeding. It is also related to articulation problems and hypernasality. The articulation issues are likely due to the lack of ability to build pressure and without pressure consonants are altered (Goorhuis-Brouwer & Priester, 2008,
Ava Bracciante, an eight year-one month old female, who has been attending Lehman College Speech and Hearing Clinic since spring 2014 due to parental concerns regarding her articulation. She is currently attending the clinic once a week for 50-minute sessions. Ava’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Bracciante, provided the case history report and stated that Ava received a speech-language evaluation at the Ampark School in 2014. The evaluation revealed gliding of the lingua-palatal rhotic /r/ and vocalization of the rhotic diphthong /ɚ/; her intelligibility was not compromised; therefore, she did not qualify for services. Mrs. Bracciante reported that she has seen an improvement in Ava’s speech and is an active participant to her progress.
IDEA definition applies to cleft palate due to this disorder happens during development. Children with clef palate can have speech and language impairment which the student may need services to help with language development. Cleft palate is a birth defect that occurs when the roof of the baby’s mouth
The success of speech therapy intervention is dependent on successful surgical correction. The authors note that postsurgical complications may include stiffness due to scar tissue decreasing the flexibility of the velum, tethering of the velum, weakness of the velum, and shrinking of the velar tissues. The authors also note the risk of malocclusion as the child grows and the palate continues to grow and develop.
The scope of practice of speech-language pathology describes the ethical and clinical responsibility of clinicians to implement therapy techniques, which contains efficacy that is supported by evidence. Non-speech oral-motor exercises (NSOMEs), in particular have raised controversy among speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and researchers when treating children with articulation and phonological disorders. The use of NSOMEs is a debated issue in the profession due to the lack of evidence based practice (EBP), poor clinical assumptions, and the avoidance of meeting the client’s needs.
The purpose of this evidence based research paper is to evaluate the efficacy of the cycles approach when compared to the traditional articulation therapy approach in the treatment of children who are highly unintelligible. The Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach (Hodson, 2011) is a treatment method for children with severe speech sound disorders. This approach targets phonological pattern errors in a sequential manner. During each cycle, one or more phonological patterns are targeted and after each cycle is complete, another cycle begins. Recycling of phonological patterns continues until the targeted patterns are generalized into the child’s conversational speech. The cycles approach is meant to mirror typical phonological development in children (Hodson, 2011).
The sample was generated from participants who volunteered. The participants represented males and females ranging between the age of 8 and 13; 14 males and 10 females of each cleft type; and matched them according to sex, age, IQ, and levels of reading ability. In order to be a participant, the authors listed the following as criteria: the subject had to be reading at least one grade level behind on the Wide Range Achievement Test, Average Full Scale IQ on the WISC, be within the third to sixth grade in school, the evidence of cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only had to be present with no other genetic syndromes or neurological anomalies which might be related to intellectual or learning process, and no significant hearing loss at the time of testing.
Referral Information: Jeffrey St.James, a 6-year-old male, was referred by his first grade teacher, Miss Mary, for intervention evaluation. Miss Mary identifies Jeffery as having developmental milestones that are delayed. After completing a screening, a service coordinator from the public health department informed his mother, Camille, that Jeffery has a
Introduction Child hood Apraxia of Speech is a motor speech disorder that affects children’s ability to say sounds, syllables, and words. The brain has trouble coordinating muscle movements that are needed for speech. The child knows exactly what to speak, but the brain has trouble coordinating the muscle movements. It is
Any intervention plan needs to include three components to be successful. The first being clinical expertise of the professionals that the disorder pertains to. Therefore, with speech being the target, a speech language pathologist would use his/her clinical judgment. The next factor includes current research and studies that involve the disorder being targeted. The intervention plan needs to be based in science, and there needs to have been previous research done to prove its effectiveness. This assures both the clinician and the client that the treatment will yield results if preformed correctly. The most important aspect is the last component, involving the child and their caregivers. It is pertinent that the patient is the main focus of all decisions, and with young infants that includes the caregiver/s as well. In order to devise a proper intervention plan, the patient and the caregiver/s concerns and wants need to be met. If patient or caregiver would like to target a specific difficulty, it is the clinician’s responsibility to use their professional expertise and current research to compose a plan that best suits the client and his/her needs. (Ritzman,
The subject received a cochlear implant when he was two years old, and his language development was equal to typically developing 18 months old. The investigators implemented an intervention program that was six weeks and noted that phonological awareness was a necessary skill for reading and speech production. Even a short period of time like 6-week, the child showed significant increases in phonological awareness and speech
It will take Matt and Maria about five to thirty seconds to chew their General Tso’s chicken and rice. Food remains in their oral cavity and pharynx for about only one minute (Primal Pictures). The oral cavity is where the initial phases of mechanical and chemical digestion begins. It helps sense the food being consumed by gaining information regarding taste, texture and temperature. The pharynx is a fibromuscular structure that connects the oral cavity with the esophagus. During this time the walls of the pharynx constrict to push the General Tso chicken and rice into the esophagus. The food then travels to the esophagus and is there for a short amount of time, around five to eight seconds (Primal Pictures). The esophagus is a continuation of the pharynx. Peristalsis
The topic I chose to write about falls into the multifactorial disorders, cleft lip and palate. This topic is important to me because I have a cousin who was born with cleft lip and palate, and I want to further understand the genetic factors that could have caused the baby to be born with cleft lip. The journal I have chosen to write about is written by Mary-Alice Abbot, the name of it is Cleft Lip and Palate and it was published in Pediatrics in Review, in May 2014.
“Phonological disorders in children can result from physical or organic causes or may be functional in nature ("Phonological disorders in," 2013)”. Children with a phonological disorder may experience a higher risk for reading and writing disabilities. “If left unresolved, phonological disorders have long-term consequences that may interfere with an individual's future social, academic, and vocational well-being, largely resulting from persistent, reduced intelligibility of speech ("Phonological disorders in," 2013).”