Essay on Explaining Political Philosophy

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Explaining Political Philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, as it is also known, is
about human condition, or, what humans are like. There are roughly
four main kinds of political philosophy around today-Libertarianism,
Socialism, Liberalism and Communitarianism. Political theory is an
attempt to understand people, what we are like as individuals, what
society and the state are like, and how we as humans, the state and
society all interact with one and other.

A social contract theory is the method of justifying political
principles or arrangements by appeal to the agreement that would be
made among suitably situated rational, free, and equal persons. For
some philosophers this
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To run the state a very high level of technical
knowledge would be required, as only the brightest people should be in
charge of it and run it.

Hobbes, a seventeenth century English philosopher, is generally
regarded as the first modern political philosopher; he is famous for
his early and elaborate development of what has come to be known as
"social contract theory". He is infamous for having used the social
contract method to arrive at the astonishing conclusion that we ought
to submit to the authority of an absolute, undivided and unlimited,
sovereign power. He conceived of politics as science. In his theory of
ballistics (guns and missiles) objects moved at random, and were
likely to collide with one and other. Hobbes viewed society in much
the same way; we all as individuals are more or less equal, we seek
pleasure and avoid pain. This will undoubtedly lead to competition
between individuals. Because of this Hobbes characterizes the state of
nature as a state of war, where the life of the individual according
to him would be " solitary, poore, nasty, brutish and short". This
Hobbesian state of nature is so horrible that individuals would want
to avoid it at all costs. We therefore need a state that has laws that
will protect us from each other; Hobbes calls this the "absolutist
state". To avoid the horrible prospect…