Essay on Explaining Political Philosophy

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Explaining Political Philosophy

Political philosophy, or political theory, as it is also known, is about human condition, or, what humans are like. There are roughly four main kinds of political philosophy around today-Libertarianism, Socialism, Liberalism and Communitarianism. Political theory is an attempt to understand people, what we are like as individuals, what society and the state are like, and how we as humans, the state and society all interact with one and other.

A social contract theory is the method of justifying political principles or arrangements by appeal to the agreement that would be made among suitably situated rational, free, and equal persons. For some philosophers this
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To run the state a very high level of technical knowledge would be required, as only the brightest people should be in charge of it and run it.

Hobbes, a seventeenth century English philosopher, is generally regarded as the first modern political philosopher; he is famous for his early and elaborate development of what has come to be known as "social contract theory". He is infamous for having used the social contract method to arrive at the astonishing conclusion that we ought to submit to the authority of an absolute, undivided and unlimited, sovereign power. He conceived of politics as science. In his theory of ballistics (guns and missiles) objects moved at random, and were likely to collide with one and other. Hobbes viewed society in much the same way; we all as individuals are more or less equal, we seek pleasure and avoid pain. This will undoubtedly lead to competition between individuals. Because of this Hobbes characterizes the state of nature as a state of war, where the life of the individual according to him would be " solitary, poore, nasty, brutish and short". This Hobbesian state of nature is so horrible that individuals would want to avoid it at all costs. We therefore need a state that has laws that will protect us from each other; Hobbes calls this the "absolutist state". To avoid the horrible prospect