Fiber Optic Communication Systems And Introduction

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Fiber Optic Communication Systems and Introduction to SONET/SDH (December 2014) Pravalika Nagulapally, (012600326)
Abstract— This paper explains about the Evolution of fiber optic networks in Communications. It describes in detail about the Optics communication model and also detailed MATLAB work on calculating the parameters that are required to setup a optical link. It also emphasizes on different bands employed in Communication systems. The section three of the paper describes briefly regarding Synchronous Optical Networking (SONET) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). The SONET networks topology and their hierarchy is also described in this paper. The data rates of Sonet/Sdh and the optical market highlights are described at
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Fiber optic communications systems are light wave systems that employ optical fibers for information transmission.

Fig. BL vs Year

A commonly used figure of merit for communication systems is the bit rate distance product. (BL), where B is the bit rate and L is the repeater spacing. Figure shows that the BL product has increased with technical advances.
II. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Modern fiber-optic communication systems generally include an optical transmitter to convert an electrical signal into an optical signal to send into the optical fiber, a cable containing bundles of multiple optical fibers that is routed through underground conduits and buildings, multiple kinds of amplifiers, and an optical receiver to recover the signal as an electrical signal. The information transmitted is typically digital information generated by computers, telephone systems, and cable television companies.
Figure shows a generic block diagram of an optical communication system. It consists of a transmitter, a communication channel and a receiver. Optical communication systems can be classified into two broad categories.

Fig:Optical Communication System

Guided: Guided lightwave systems: The optical emitted by the light source remains confined.
Unguided: The optical beam emitted spreads out in space.
A.Transmitters:
The most commonly used optical transmitters are semiconductor devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes. The difference
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