Functions Of The Nervous System

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Overtime, organisms have been able to adapt and develop in a range of diverse environments as a result of their ability to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of anatomical, behavioural and physiological systems to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation or stimulus that would tend to disturb its normal condition or function. (1) A major physiological system that works in maintaining homeostasis in animals, specifically humans, is the nervous system. The nervous system consists of a vast network of interconnecting neurons which transmit electronic signals throughout the body. All neurons relay information to each other through a complex electrochemical process, making…show more content…
Neurons are the functional unit of the nervous system and thus are very complicated structures that play dynamic roles in performing vital bodily functions. (4) As the information-processing units of the nervous system, neurons acquire information from sensory receptors, pass the information on to other neurons, and make muscles move to produce behaviours. They encode memories and produce our thoughts and emotions. There are three general classifications of neurons; these are sensory neurons, interneurons and motor neurons. They differ significantly in function and slightly in structure, all having the same basic configuration. (6) Figure 1: Neuron shape and function (5) In basic form, sensory neurons get information about what is happening in the body internally and externally and is responsible for transporting it to the CNS to be processed. Motor neurons get information from other neurons and send commands to ones muscles, organs and glands. Interneurons are neurons that are connected to one another, and are responsible for receiving information from other neurons and transmitting the information to other neural connections. The basic structure of the neuron can be seen in the appendix below. (27) Figure 2: Neuron structure (3) Figure 3: Axons and Node of Ranvier (3) The junction between two neurons or a neuron and a muscle or gland is called the synapse. This is where
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