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Genetic Engineering Is The Precision Of Gene Transfer

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As defined by Halford and Shewry (2000), genetic Modification is the manipulation of organism development, structure or composition by the insertion of specific DNA sequences. This may be for the purpose of expressing a gene that is not naturally found in the plant or to modify endogenous genes (Halford et al., 2000). In a way, we have been genetically modifying our food for thousands of years. Since the dawn of agriculture, our ancestors were selecting and breeding plants and livestock with the desired phenotypes, such as bigger cows or plants. One particular difference between conventional methods of obtaining better crop yields and modern genetic engineering is the precision of gene transfer. Getting a child plant with the desired…show more content…
The new DNA found in this genetic plant can be referred to as recombinant DNA. According to Hillis, Sadava, Hill and Price (2013), recombinant DNA is a single DNA molecule containing DNA sequences from 2 or more sources.

History
According to Woosley (2012), genetic engineering as we know it today relied on our knowledge of DNA. DNA was discovered by Russian scientist Andrei Nikolaevitch Belozersky in 1935. In 1973 a student at Stanford came up with revolutionizing idea that DNA could be man-made (rDNA). In the 1970’s-80’s a conference was held to create guidelines for the safe use of genetically modified DNA and a genetics engineer gained a patent on a living organism, a bacterium that eats crude oil (Woosley, 2012). In 1982 the first GMO was approved by the FDA; Humulin, insulin which is produced by genetically engineered E. coli bacteria (Woosley, 2012).

How GMOs Are Created
In order to make a genetically engineered or transgenic organism, scientists must first find the desired trait, be it frost-resistance or salinity tolerance, and identify an organism with this trait. Scientists then take a sample of the plant or organism and use genome mapping technology to find where the trait is located within the DNA. Restriction enzymes are used by scientists to cut the DNA into fragments that can then be manipulated in the
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