Graves’ disease was named after Robert J. Graves, MD, around the 1830’s. It is an autoimmune disease indicated by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies, which is an antibody that attacks the person’s own body. The immune system attacks the thyroid gland, which causes it to produce too much thyroxine. Thyroxine is a hormone that helps control growth and also regulates metabolism in the body. While the thyroxine levels are high the patient’s metabolic rate increases, which can have an effect on their physical appearance as well as their frame of mind. Graves’ disease is the number one cause of hyperthyroidism in the U.S.
Did you know that an estimated 27 million people have a kind of thyroid disorder? Do you know what Thyroid disorders consist of? Well thyroid disorders are broken into two branches; Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism.
Graves’ disease is autoimmune that effects the thyroid in front of the neck. This thyroid creates T3 and T4 which helps regulate how the body uses energy. We have a small gland called pituitary in the brain that helps the thyroid regulate the hormone level properly. With grave’s disease the immune system creates antibodies that act like TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) which than makes the thyroid to create more hormones than what the body needs to have. This is called hyperthyroidism. Graves’ disease causes the body to speed up such as the heart and the metabolism. The symptoms for graves’ disease are goiter (enlarged gland) Anxiety and irritability, A fine tremor of your hands or fingers, Heat sensitivity and an increase in perspiration
Grave’s Disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid and its hormone production. Normally, a healthy immune system releases antibodies that are designed to attack bacteria and viruses. In addition to antibodies, the thyroid creates hormones that regulate overall hormone production. With Grave’s Disease, the immune system releases antibodies that imitate these thyroid hormones; this leads to overproduction of hormones, or hyperthyroidism. Doctors are not sure as to what exactly causes Grave’s disease, but it is speculated that factors such as age play a role; as in, younger people are typically more prone to this illness. Its symptoms include anxiety; sweating; heart
The thyroid is a small gland that rests in the lower neck. It is in charge of controlling the body’s metabolism by producing hormones (such as T3 and T4) that tell the body’s cells how much energy to use (2). The pituitary gland is in charge of monitoring the quantity of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream (2).
TPO is an enzyme that plays a role in the production of thyroid hormones. However, over time, thyroiditis causes slow and chronic cell damage leading to the development of a goiter (enlarged thyroid) with gradual thyroid failure, and most patients will eventually develop symptoms of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid symptoms may include fatigue, weight gain, constipation, increased sensitivity to cold, dry skin, depression, muscle aches and reduced exercise tolerance, and irregular or heavy menses. (American Thyroid Association 2017).
Blood tests can determine the hormone levels that are produced by the thyroid and pituitary glands. Antibody tests can determine if abnormal antibodies are present. During an ultrasound, a transducer is held over your neck. The images it produces can determine the size of the gland and see if any nodules are present. You can undergo a thyroid exam, in which a radioactive isotope is injected in a vein in the inside of your elbow. Once the isotope reaches the thyroid, it can produce an image that can provide information about the size and nature of the thyroid. During a biopsy, an ultrasound is used to guide a needle to your thyroid to obtain a fluid or tissue sample to be
Hashimoto thyroiditis is a common disease caused by hypothyroidism. The immune system cells attack the thyroid gland, causing inflammation and eventually destruction of the gland. This reduces the thyroids ability to make hormones. These hormones are known as thyroxine (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) (Better health channel 2015).
Scientifically, Hashimoto’s Disease is, “a condition in which your immune system attacks your thyroid, a small gland at the base of your neck. The thyroid is a part of your endocrine system, which produces hormones that coordinate many of your body’s activities. The resulting inflammation from Hashimoto’s often leads to an under active thyroid” (Mayo Clinic.) Unfortunately, my thyroid didn’t work properly, and my body attacked it because of this.
During my sophomore year of high school, I was diagnosed by a naturopathic doctor with Grave's Disease, which is a thyroid condition. I felt that it was the end of the world being diagnosed with a thyroid condition. Though I learned that I could manage and live with it, but the good news was I did not have to have my thyroid surgically removed. I was shocked by the blood draw results that I have Grave's Disease and I thought it was a mistake, but it was not a mistake. It was upsetting for me to take in and by having this disease; it also meant that I had to eliminate all gluten from my diet. I had to take six to nine natural thyroid supplement capsules during the day and at night. I also was diagnosed as dairy intolerant. There was a part
Physical assessment reveals intermittent heart palpitations with strong carotid and radial pulses, brisk deep tendon reflexes, 1+ non-pitting edema of bilateral ankles, hair thinning, onycholysis, orbital lid lag and an enlarged neck with positive audible bruit. Mrs. J.P. denies pain upon palpation of neck as slight thyroid enlargement is noted. Orders to perform complete blood count (CBC), complete metabolic panel (CMP), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine index, free (T4), triiodothyroine (T3), and pregnancy test result in abnormal values including:
The patient’s diagnosis is primary overt hypothyroidism. The patient presents with certain features such as weight gain, weakness, excessively dry flaking skin, dry hair, sluggish movements, constipation, bradycardia, diminished deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral edematous hands, which is classical signs and symptoms for primary hypothyroidism. The patient laboratory test reveals she has an elevation in serum thyroid stimulating hormone level along with low serum free thyroxin and triiodthyronine levels, which indicates it is a dysfunction or abnormality in the thyroid gland as opposed to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus (Gaitonde; Lohano; Porth, 2015, p. 780; Ross, 2014).