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Hirschsprung Disease : A Congenital Digestive Condition

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Hirschsprung Disease Research Paper
Emma Jamieson
Introduction
Hirschsprung disease is a congenital digestive condition primarily found in newborns, although older children can be diagnosed with mild cases. Damage to the nerve cells found in between the muscle layers of the walls of the large intestine inhibits the ability to effectively pass stool. The loss of functioning nerve cells prevents peristalsis from moving the stool towards the rectum creating blockages of stool in the large intestine. This results in constipation, bloating, diarrhea, and vomiting, these symptoms if left unchecked can be lethal in infants, and lead to many long term problems in older children. Recorded evidence of Hirschsprung disease dates back to 1691 with
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This action potential signals vesicles containing neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic cleft, or space between two neurons containing extracellular fluid. Neurotransmitters bind to sites found on ion channels of the adjacent neuron, due to the impermeability of neuron membranes to ions, neurotransmitters are necessary for the movement of action potentials between neurons. The chemical synapse or the transfer of ions between the axon of one neuron to the dendrite of another allows for the chemical signal to be conveyed through a neural network to achieve an end result, such as skeletal movement, sight, and touch. Electrical synapses are also used alongside chemical synapses to transfer the chemical message to the appropriate recipient. These synapses are found between two dendrites, they communicate the changes in charge through gap junctions which allow for the passive diffusion of ions through the neurons connected, this results in a response from all neurons that receive the action potential (Stufflebeam, 2008). The nervous system affected by Hirschsprung’s disease is specifically the enteric nervous system it communicates to the central nervous system through both the parasympathetic and sympathetic systems, which is a denomination of the peripheral system. The peripheral
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