Hiv Prevalence And High Risk Groups

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Introduction-Prevalence & High Risk Groups
India has the third largest HIV epidemic in the world. In 2013, HIV prevalence in India was an estimated 0.3 percent. Overall, India’s HIV epidemic is slowing down, with a 57% decline in new HIV infections & 29% percent decline in AIDS-related deaths between 2007 and 2011.(1)
HIV prevalence in India varies geographically. The four states with the highest numbers of people living with HIV (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu) are in the south of the country and account for 53 percent of all HIV infections. However, HIV prevalence is falling and in northern states, the number of new HIV infections is rising. (1)Heterosexual sex is the predominant mode
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Prev. Because the Indian society discriminates against FSWs as immoral women. FSWs with lower social support score were relatively less likely to use condom consistently. These women, for the most part, remain inaccessible to HIV prevention programmes, thereby undermining the efforts of HIV prevention.(2,5)
Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV in India- prevalence: 4.4%. In 2009, the Delhi High Court had decriminalised same sex conduct. However, in December 2013, India 's Supreme Court recriminalised adult same sex sexual conduct, which limits the access of HIV prevention and treatment for MSM. (4)
Hijras / transgender people and HIV in India- HIV prevalence: 8.8 %.In India, transgender people are often not given identity and considered as a distinct group, which results in social exclusion ,leading to high-risk behaviours.(6)
In April 2014, the Indian Supreme Court recognised transgender people as a distinct gender. Many hope this ruling will lead to a decline in the stigma and discrimination faced by hijras and increase their access to HIV services.
People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV in India- HIV prevalence: 7.1 %
30 % of PWID are in north-eastern states, where injecting drug use is the major route of HIV transmission. However, HIV prevention efforts in this region have reduced the number of new infections. Research has stressed the need for early interventions for PWID in India, among which most influenced are the teenage/adolescent
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