How Do Atoms Lose Electron?

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Ions form when an atom either gains or loses electrons. When an atom with less than 4 valence electrons it usually loses them through ionization energy. This transforms the atom from a neutral state to a cation thus giving the atom a positive charge. When an atom loses an atom it doesn't just disappear; the electrons are usually transfered to another element. For example lets take a look at Potassium. It only has 1 valence electron so it will loose it through ionization energy and will now have a positive charge.
Now that we know how atoms lose electrons, how do atoms gain electrons? When atoms gain electrons it usually has more than 4 valence electrons. This transforms a atom from a neutral state to a negative state therfore turning the atom

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