Name: Cheyenne Hylton Name of Lab: Properties of Enzymes Date: November 2015 Name of Instructor: Mr. Jeffrey Ellis Subject Section: Biology I/Lab 1500 (DAC) Abstract: In this lab or experiment, the aim was to determine the following factors of enzymes: (1) the effects of enzymes concentration the catalytic rate or the rate of the reaction, (2) the effects of pH on a particular enzyme, an enzyme known and referred throughout this experiment as ALP (alkaline phosphate enzyme) and lastly (3) the effects of various temperatures on the reaction or catalytic rate. Throughout the experiment 8 separate cuvettes and tubes are mixed with various solutions (labeled as tables 1,3 & 4 in the apparatus/materials sections of the lab) and tested for the effects of the factors mentioned above (concentration, pH and temperature). The tubes labeled 1-4 are tested for pH with pH paper and by spectrophotometer, cuvettes 1a-4a was tested for concentration and cuvettes labeled 1b-4b was tested for temperature in four different atmospheric conditions (4ºC, 23ºC, 32ºC and 60ºC) to see how the enzyme solution was affected by the various conditions. After carrying out the procedures the results showed that the experiment followed the theory for the most part, which is that all the factors work best at its optimum level. So, the optimum pH that the enzymes reacted at was a pH of 7 (neutral), the optimum temperature that the reactions occurs with the enzymes is a temperature of 4ºC or
Introduction:Enzymes are made up of proteins which are produced within living cells and act as catalysts which speed up chemical reactions. They are made up of long chains of amino acids containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Enzymes are structured to be
Introduction Organisms cannot rely entirely on spontaneous reactions to produce all the materials necessary for life. These reactions occur much too slowly. To produce these materials quicker, cells rely on enzymes, biological catalysts, to speed up these reactions without being consumed. (General Biology I, Martineau, Dean, Gilliland, & Soderstrom, Lab Manual, 2017, 43). To produce these materials quicker, the activation reaction much be lowered, a very important part of this lab. Each enzyme acts on a specific molecule, or set of molecules, called a substrate (43). The enzyme binds to this substrate, forming an enzyme-substrate complex. An enzyme is a protein whose structure is determined by the sequence of amino acids groups that
Introduction Proteins are large macromolecules that are essential for the structure, function and regulation of the body. Enzymes, which help break down proteins into their monomers, amino acids, are made up of proteins. Protein digestion begins in the stomach and is continued in the small intestine where an enzyme called trypsin, which is produced in the pancreas, breaks down the proteins in the body by cleaving the protein into small peptides and amino acids (Gillaspy). Once broken down, the amino acids can be absorbed through the pancreas and into the bloodstream. A ninhydrin test can test for the presence of amino acids, which is helpful when determining whether or not a protease enzyme, such as trypsin, is present and to observe the effects on a solution with an enzyme and a solution without an enzyme.
Investigating the Effect of Lipase Concentration on the Breakdown of Fat in Milk INTRODUCTION: Enzymes are proteins which can catalyse chemical reactions without changing themselves. The enzyme lipase breaks down the fat in dairy products such as full-cream milk for people who are lactose intolerant. Lipase acts on its specific substrate, lipids produces fatty acids. If enzyme concentration increases, random collisions between the substrates and active sites of enzyme increase due to the increasing amount of active sites which allow more collisions to happen, so the rate of breakdown of lipids to simpler substances will increase. During the experiment, sodium carbonate solution and pH indicator phenolphthalein will be added ahead of
Introduction Enzymes are an organic substance that are made up of polymers of amino acids that help the digestive system and metabolic processes in living organisms (Funk and Wagnalls, 2016). Enzymes are able
Proteins Proteins are complex structures made up of chains of amino acids. Each protein has a different function such as enzymes to catalyze reactions or protein hormones to trigger certain functions of a cell. First let’s start with the most basic component of a protein: an amino acid. An amino acid is made up of a central carbon atom attached to a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, an amino group, and an R group which varies
Introduction: The motive of this lab is to attain a better understanding of enzyme activity by timing chemical reactions in certain temperatures and pH levels. Enzymes act as catalysts that help speed up reactions. Without these enzymes chemical reactions in metabolism would be backed up. There are two factors that affect an enzyme’s reaction rate: temperature and pH levels. In this label we will be testing different pH levels and temperatures to see which ones cause the most reactions.
Enzyme Lab Introduction/ Abstract An enzyme is a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. They are mainly made up of proteins and can tremendously speed up reactions. E. coli ( a bacterium) has about 1,000 different types of enzymes floating around in its cytoplasm at any given time. Enzymes can be used to join and even break up molecules as shown in the diagram below.
The effects of temperature, pH, specificity and cofactors of enzyme activity were tested. An enzyme is an organic catalyst that speeds up metabolic reactions by lowering the activation energy in cells. Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy needed for the chemical reaction to occur and can be affected by altering the enzyme’s environment as shown during the experiments. When the enzyme is not at the optimal temperature or pH, then the enzyme may become denatured, inactive and lose its normal shape. The enzyme used was Lactase, which binds to the substrate lactose. A substrate is the reactant in the enzymatic reaction and binds to the contact region on the enzyme called the active site. Enzymes have three dimensional shapes
A molecule is a group of atoms bonded together that represent the smallest unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction. (http://www.dictionary.com) In kitchen chemistry today, there are many types of food molecules such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, and water. But there are four molecules
Hui Tzu(Erin) Wang
Abstract The pH of our duodenum fluctuates from acidic (pH 2) to alkaline (pH 7.5), (Woodtli & Werner, 1995). Enzymes such as Trypsin, work in our duodenum to speed up the chemical reactions which break down macromolecules and extract nutrients and energy from the food we eat. Since enzymes change activity depending on pH due to changes in their tertiary structure, we wanted to assess the effects of pH on the Trypsin enzymatic activity. To address our question, we conducted the reaction in which the substrate BAPA and TRIS buffer were mixed with Trypsin extract, and the rate of reaction was measured as product appearance (p-nitroanaline) over time using a spectrophotometer. We conducted 6 replicates for the reactions at pH 4, pH5, pH6, pH7,
Cell use enzymes to speed up a chemical reactions that take places in cells, and enzyme is a protein molecule that has characteristic sequence of amino acids. The amino acids are fold to produce a specific three-dimensional structure, and gives the them unique properties. Another molecule is ribozyme, which is an enzyme made of RNA rather than protein. Enzymes are most likely to be classified by their reaction catalyze.
To investigate the effect of enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction PREDICTION: An enzyme is a biological catalyst. They speed up the rate of a reaction however they do not affected themselves whilst doing this, which is why they are catalysts. Enzymes are made to be specific, this means that they can have only one substrate that they will work on. Each enzyme has an active site that is where their own specific substrate’s molecule will fit into. The enzymes catalyze chemical reactions beginning with the binding of the substrate to the active site on the enzyme. The active site enzymes catalyze chemical reactions begins with the binding of the substrate (or substrates) to the active site on the enzyme. The active site is the Pipette To measure the right concentrations of starch and amylase to use in each experiment. Thermometer Used to see if the temperature of the water is at 37oc – 40oc and if