Impact of International Environmental Laws on Oil and Gas Production

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Evaluation of the Impact of International Environmental Laws on Oil/Gas Production Background National oil companies (NOCs) are reported as having become "key actors within, as well as shapers of the international oil market." (Chen, 2007, p.4) Chen additionally states that in consideration of the shadowing of geopolitics with geology a great many of the world's primary basins are situated countries that have administrative capacity that is limited and governments that are highly authoritarian in nature. (Paraphrased) The demand for energy is expanding rapidly on the part of consumer NOCs from countries short on major oil reserves and countries that have declining reserves leaving them unable to keep domestic demand satisfied and this results many times in social and environmental effect considerations being outweighed. Harvard University professor and United Nations envoy for business and human rights Dr. John Ruggie is reported as stating: "For my interim report last spring I examined 65 cases of the worst human rights abuses reported by NGOs over the previous few years. Two thirds were in the extractive sector. What else was striking? The 65 cases took place in 27 countries of which all but two were low-income countries, all scored low on governance and rule of law indicators, all scored high on corruption." ( ) Norway and Oil Industry Norway's Sartoil is reported as being "extremely active in promoting corporate citizenship and operate their projects in line with
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