In 21st Century Great Britain, the idea of death penalty seems outdated and repulsive. However, the United Kingdom has had a long history of executions for those that have committed treason and so on. The last hanging dating back to 1964, the death sentence has been abolished since 1965 (The Murder Act 1965).
These criminals were dealt with in many ways ranging from hanging, shooting, burning, burying and so on. Since the 5th Century, hanging was the most common method to execute wrongdoers. Hanging are usually used for common folk, while guillotine is specifically for highborn.
There were much law enacted to dealt with the body after the punishment to make the sentence look worse. One includes the body being cut up for anatomical …show more content…
In this case, nobody could base their own experience to make such decisions for someone else, only the patient can put themselves in their own shoes and understand the true magnitude of the situation.
On one hand, some patients’ life are hanging on by a thread, where the only thing keeping them alive is artificial nutrition and hydration (“ANH”). The medical state of these people could possibly be categorized in the three “disorders of consciousness”. Being in one of those conditions, they lack the capacity to make a conclusion on whether or not to live or die.
Therefore, other ways are done to bring the decision to light. An “advance decision” is where they have already made preparation anticipating such events, stating whether they choose to live or die. Not only that, a “Lasting Power of Attorney” (“LPA”) which would make the choice for the patients based on the circumstances of the patient’s welfare. There are also concerns as to whether the patients were in an autonomous state making such preparation, whether they were uninfluenced by others, their decision solely based on their reasoning.
Peter Jackson J has observed: ‘anyone capable of making decisions has an absolute right ti accept or refuse medical treatment, regardless the wisdom or consequences of the decision. The decision does not have to be justified to anyone. In the absence of consent, any invasion of
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The restoration of the death penalty for serious crimes is an issue of debate in the UK because of the recent rise in violent crime. It is said that at least 17,833 people are under the sentence of the death penalty worldwide as of 31 December 2010. The death penalty or otherwise known as the capital punishment is a legal process where a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. Currently it is only allowed in 32 states and has come to discussion if the death penalty should be reinstated back in the UK.
The death penalty laws were first established in the eighteenth century. It was created under the code of King Hammurabi of Babylon, which codified the death penalty for 25 different crimes. During that time they carried out their form of the death penalty in many ways such as crucifixion, drowning, beating to death, burning alive, and impalement. Following what Hammurabi had already established the leader of Britain Henry VIII carried on; he adds the form of beheading individuals. By the 1700s, Britain was making all types of crimes punishable under death penalty laws. Which was increasing the number of deaths daily throughout Britain, however, many juries would not convict the person who committed the crime if they felt it was not that serious. This made changes that 100 of 222 crimes should not punishable by
Capital Punishment is the lawful infliction of death and has been used in Britain since the 5the century. It was not until 1964 that capital punishment was abolished and this has been described by many historians as Britain's worst decision in over 500 years.
The importance of end of life issues and decisions are now being discussed at the time of admission to most acute care and long term acute care facilities. More attention is being placed on these specific decisions to ensure that the patient's
The death penalty has changed a lot over the last 40 years. At the same time it hasn’t changed at all. At the end of the day someone is tried, convicted, and the executed for the crime they have committed. That much has not changed since its first reported case in America in 1608 when a Captain George Kendall was executed for espionage in Jamestown, Virginia. He was executed by Firing squad. The most recent execution was of a man named
There is a fine line in defining the rights of the individual, responsibilities of the doctor, and the criteria used in making end-of-life decisions. How decisions are made is a very complicated one. The decision should be between the patient and the doctor. Since the patient is the only one that can determine how he or she feels about his or her position, it is ultimately up to them but it shouldn’t be hidden from their family and friends (Roberts, 138).
The history of the death penalty is a long and brutal one. From the stoning and crucifixion killings of the B.C. to today’s methods of the electric chair and lethal injection, governments of one kind or another have
The individual may not understand complex medical terms but has basic understanding of risk factors associated with decision-making (Anthony, 2012). Constitutional laws dictate that a doctor has the responsibility to show regard for a patient’s wishes. A patient has the right to determine whether to accept medical treatment providing he or she is competent (Laing, 2003). Should a doctor not comply with a patient’s wishes and an error occurs, the doctor has violated the patient’s constitutional rights. The court can charge the doctor with “battery” or “assault” (Anthony, 2012) and may require the doctor or health facility to pay damages to the patient. Not only is the matter of neglecting a patient’s wishes a legal one, but ethics also comes into play. Especially in the case of an adverse event, the doctor’s credibility comes into question and so does the integrity of the health
Nonetheless, the patient 's right to refuse therapy must be protected, recognizing that most patients are concerned about their families and do not wish to have family members undergo unnecessary anguish. Physicians should be sensitive to such family concerns, but in the end, it is the patient 's wishes that must prevail.2
Each year, there are patients who are faced with end of life choices that can sometimes be predicted, but at times, something they would have believed never would happen. When the choice is not their own to make, what is the right decision when the time comes? Do the families help to make the decision when the patient is incapable to do so? And will the person know to make the decision that is based on what is in the patient’s best interest? As there isn’t always a direct note discussing what are the most recent requests at the end of life, the decision can be difficult and can create conflict and debate in determining what is the “right decision”. Doctors, as well as nurses, play a large role in this decision, and should be able to help set
The physician did not ensure that the patient was not able to do all the components for decision making capacity. For a patient’s decision to be regarded as right, he or she must possess the decision-making capability. Likewise, doctors are required to respect the patient’s authority to make a decision even if it is not the right one (Degner & Sloan, 1992). However, the physician is also required to act towards the client’s best interest to save his or her life (Levinson, Kao, Kuby, & Thisted, 2005). If the patient does not have good decision-making potential, because of illness and/or emotional stress like in this situation the doctor can follow state law to obtain consent.
Since the year 1976 there have been a total of 1,433 executions in the United States, most of them being carried out in the South. In the early 1600s in America the death penalty was in place to deter crime and act as the most severe punishment possible for atrocious crimes, such as murder or treason. Capital punishment is still in use today as a way of counteracting violent crimes as well as providing the families of the victims with justice. However there was once a moment in America’s history that could have ended the usage of the death penalty.
Capital punishment goes all the way back to Ancient Greece. The Romans also used it for many offenses. People used their Christian beliefs to justify capital punishment by using several biblical passages such as “Whosoever sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed” (Genesis 9:6) Executions in ancient China were very painful as they used techniques of sawing someone in half, flaying them while they were alive, and boiling them. In Europe the many cruel ways they executed people was by “breaking” on the wheel, boiling in oil, burning at the stake, decapitation by the guillotine or an axe, hanging, drawing and quartering, and drowning. By the end of the 20th century many jurisdictions went to death by lethal injection. Some other methods of execution were electrocution, gassing and the firing squad (Hood 1).