In Outlining the Central Elements of Schmidt’s Schema Theory of Motor Learning, Comment on How It Attempted to Deal with the Shortcomings of Previous Models of Motor Learning.
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In 1975, Schmidt proposed his Schema Theory of Motor Learning. This theory was produced as an alternative theory to Adams’ Closed Loop Theory (1971). Schmidt (1982, p.482) says “In 1975, largely due to my dissatisfaction with Adams’ position, I formulated a theory that can be considered a rival to Adams’.” Schmidt had concerns about Adams’ theory, that it didn’t place enough emphasis on open loop control processes. According to Schmidt (1982) a major limitation of this theory is that it focuses on slow, linear-positioning responses, which are not representative of the many other different kinds of skills we use in everyday life. Adams’ theory was based on the premise of perceptual and memory traces. The perceptual trace is a memory of…show more content… What happened (knowledge of results). 4) Sensory consequences. How the movement felt, looked etc. The information gained is not stored permanently. It is stored until the relationship between them has been extracted. The rule is stored that represents the relations between the variables. However, Schema theory does not specify how generalised motor programmes are formed in the first place. It gives no indication of how the individual makes the first response when supposedly no schema exists, therefore there is no prerequisite for the movement. Schmidt (1982, p.488) says “A particular movement outcome need not be produced previously in order to be produced in the future.” He thinks this because the basis of producing a new movement is a rule about parameter selection based on how similar movements were performed earlier. He produces evidence that after varied practice novel movements can be performed as accurately as they can if just the novel action had been repeated. This suggests that motor learning may be rule based, rather than the learning of specific responses. Schema theory works on two main schemas, Recall and Recognition Schema. Recall memory is responsible for the movement that occurs, and, Recognition memory is accountable for the evaluation of the movement. Recall memory acts to produce movements, usually quick response movements. Every time the schema is used more information is gathered, and the individual begins to establish a relationship that