Information System Essay
Candidate Number: 135702
Draw from the sociotechnical debate to discuss the emergence of two technologies - one developed before 1920 and one after. What are the implications of your analysis for our understanding of technological innovations? You are advised to choose technologies we have been discussing in the lectures and seminars.
There is no denying that technology has been an ever-apparent part of the human society. Today, technology is used in a variety of ways and is essential for the survival of the human society. While technology is wholly accepted as an essential part of life, there has always been a debate whether it is technology that revolutionizes society or society that influences technology, …show more content…
It views technology as the utilization of existing scientific knowledge in society. For example, the creation of a laptop, which stemmed from the creation of the computer or the steam boat which came about due to the application of 2 previous inventions, the boat and the steam engine (Petrakaki, 2014). Hence it argues that these creations cannot be considered new as it draws upon something that already exists and not “disembodied inspiration” as mentioned by MacKenzie and Wajcman (1985). In Social Determinism, technology does have a limited amount of power as it may open up more opportunities, however the choice to exploit it remains in society’s power (White, 1978). Technology is not independent and requires an existing infrastructure to be able to run, like a mobile phone, which requires connections with network towers before it can be used to make phone calls.
Social Determinism also talks about how the shaping of technology can be due to economic, political, cultural reasons and by social norms. In terms of economic reasons, the progress in technology has often been linked with improving profit or revenue margins as well as reducing costs (Petrakaki, 2014). For example, the assembly line, which came about in the 1800s, was made to improve the efficiency and reduce costs for companies, as it required lesser manpower (Walker, 1952). Culture does shape technology, as the same form of technology may possess different features in different countries. For example, in
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As we can remember, technological determinism was mentioned in the beginning of our book. When talking about technological determinism, people refer to technology as the driver of change in society. In simpler terms, technological determinism means that it is technology that controls us. An alternative, in a way, for technological determinism is technological momentum. Technological momentum is an idea that Thomas Hughes came up with. Technological momentum is similar to technological determinism, but it’s main difference is that technological momentum has to do with technology and society over time. Technological momentum occurs with the course of time; it is not inborn or built-in (p.53). A technology gains technological momentum when a vast majority of the population incorporates it into their everyday life and sees it as essential.
To define technological determinism is an approach in technology or technological advances, as a central element in the process of social change. Technology is stabilized, its tend is design to dictate the behavior of users, which diminishing the human agency. Social and cultural circumstances in which technology is developed, however ignores this stance. As we watch The Apple Special Event, Apple’s new product line is an example of technological determinism. Apple product make users feel they need the newest and latest products that they offer. Radio Wars showed technological determinism as the radio change. From how people used AM radio then they discovered FM radio and people switch from AM to FM. Once satellite radio was created people
This report will examine how changes in technology are affected by society, in turn, how the society that produced this technology is impacted by this creation. The paper will specifically address the impact of personal computers, cell phones, and the internet on society, and how these technological advancements relate to the three major sociological perspectives; equilibrium model, digital divide, and cultural lag.
The essay “Three Face of Technological Determinism” by Bruce Bimber tackles the meaning of Technological Determinism at a different perspective as he branches off to three interpretations; Normative, Normological, and Unintended Consequences. Normative accounts explains how societies attach cultural and political meaning to technological influences. Bimber’s second interpretation stated on page 83 of the book “Does Technology drive History?” Explains how society has been affected by the way they lived in the past and also how nature plays a role in society, there could not have been another future. The steam mill followed the hand mill not by coincidence but because it was the next step of innovation of nature. The third approach, perhaps
Social determinism (SD), is a direct contradiction to technological determinism. It argues that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, that society does (Green, 2002). Furthermore, that societies values, beliefs, and practices of culture are the cause for technologies development and usage (Green, 2002). So, any changes in culture result in changes in technology. A technology is meant to fulfill a societal need or want, however, it does not require to be one which satisfies the entire culture or society, it could just be a portion (Green, 2002). A major technological development that satisfied a human need (human and societal needs are the same since humans make up society, one is a micro while the other is a macro reference), is assistive technology. Alexander
Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes that a society 's technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values.
Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) is a theory that was introduced by Weiber Bijker that explains the link between social and technical processes of a technology or artifact. Bjiker argued that technology is shaped by human engineers, market forces, consumer’s needs and demands. In SCOT, technology is a social construction. Because technology is socially constructed, it involves flexibility of interpretations, stabilization and closure.
Imagine that you are to design a budget report for a colleague at work using a spreadsheet package. Following the prototyping discussed in the chapter (see also Figure 1–17), describe the steps you would take to design a prototype of this report.
Society revolves around the advancements of technology for the improve efficiency for task and easy access for information. Today, we usually consider a mechanical devices, such as smartphones and computers, something that is categorized with those or relate to them in some way, but was this the start of technology? The word “technology” has been around longer than the average person would expected, and technology has been the primary component for our civilization 's improvements that advance us to where we are currently. From elements, communication, discoveries, and manufacturing, the idea of technology is considered to be a flexible and progressive term that portrays itself to have a variety of purposes relates to everything mankind has created. By revealing the semantic changes in the connotation of the word technology and providing a chronological sequence of related conceptions, we can acknowledge how current technology changes our perception of the term.
Technology can be defined as a knowledge and organizational system that allows humans to produce items and use methods to achieve a specific objective (Volti, 2017, p. 7). This technology can sometimes be gendered. This means that technologies can be designed for a specific gender or society’s norms can classify certain technology as gender specific. An example of a gendered technology would be contraceptives. Male contraceptives are condoms and female contraceptives are birth control or the intrauterine device (IUD). Technologies can also be shaped by social forces, which is a form of social constructivism. Social construction of technology can be defined as any social force that shapes technology and technological innovation. Social constructivists believe that emerging technologies, competing technologies, and technology usage are all shaped by social forces such as political power, social class, and gender (Volti, 2017, p. 16). An example of a technology that was helped and hindered by social forces was the Blu-ray player and the HD-DVD player. Both of these technologies are similar, but social forces played a role in the HD-DVD player’s demise and the rise of the Blu-ray player. Another similar situation when social forces played a role in technology was when Betamax and VHS were released. Social forces will always play a role in technology and technological innovation.
Nowadays many people look at technological development as a questionable topic. It causes a divide in society, some people believe it is necessary, while others think it has more disadvantages than benefits. One can argue for and against it, but we can safely say it is worth to look at both sides in detail.
Explain Porter’s Five Forces Model and how Bill can use it to analyze his current business and his expansion. Be sure to address each of the 5 forces and explain to Bill what they mean for his business.
Wanganui High School is a modern, state funded, co-educational school of approximately 1600 students and 160 staff. The school is located in Wanganui in the region of Wanganui-Manawatu, New Zealand and occupies 12 hectares and consists of 12 single-storey teaching blocks. It is the largest school in the lower North Island and one of the 30 largest schools in New Zealand. There are many different people involved with the information systems at Wanganui High, they include, the administrative staff, the bursar 's, teachers and deans, the principal and deputy principals, students and parents/caregivers. Those numbers require a huge information system for management & communication. Fortunately there are five on site technicians in charge of software and hardware.