International Human Resource Management Practices

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International human resource management (IHRM) is the study and application of all human resource management activities as they impact the process of managing human resources in enterprises in the global environment (Briscoe, Schuler & Tarique, 2012). This part is very important in order to make sure that all problems at global level can be solved. Our economies in the last 50 years have become more integrated than before. There are a lot of factors that contributed to the achievement such as multinational enterprise (MNE), small and medium-sized enterprises (MSEs), and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Despite the fact that ‘human resource management’ outwardly appears to be a relatively neutral management term, the language used to
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2 Differences between countries in terms of their cultures and institutions
The first issue that we are going to discuss is about the differences between countries in terms of their cultures and institutions. Culture is the characteristic way of behaving and believing that a group of people have developed over time and share in common (Briscoe, Schuler & Tarique, 2012). Whilst globalization is undoubtedly an important aspect of economic activity, it is less significant in its scale and consequences than some enthusiasts claim (Scholte, 2005). Further, the ways in which the international management coordination of economic activities is developing reflect established patterns of economic globalization and competition at national level, such that these structure any emergent properties of a new transnational business system (Dicken, 2007). So, in this section we are going to explain evidently the scope of country differences more predominantly. We will divide it into two perspectives, which are cultural perspectives and institutional perspectives which developed by Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars.

2.1 Cultural Perspectives by Geert Hofstede
Hofstede defines culture as the ‘collective programming of the mind’ which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another (Rees & Edwards, 2011). There are five dimensions proposes by Hofstede which are power distance, uncertainty avoidance,
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