Investigating The Antigens Of Blood Types

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Introduction The objective of this experiment is to determine what antigens are present in each blood sample and from there, determine what blood type that translates to. Blood types are determined by the presence or absence of two antigens, A or B. (Martini) An antigen is a substance that induces the production of antibodies. (Martini) Antibodies are involved with the immune system; they will bind to an antigen and work to remove it from the body. In a blood system, there are four blood types; A, B, AB and O. Blood type A contains A antigen and B antibodies, group B posses the B antigen and the A antibody, AB blood group has A and B antigens but no antibodies and O group has no antigens, but both A and B antibodies. (Martini) When an opposite blood type is introduced, it causes agglutination, where clumps form in the blood. (Martini) These clumps form because the antibody bonded with the opposite antigen and then thickened. (Martini) This is dangerous for the body and this is the reason blood typing is so important while performing transfusions.
One type of blood can only go to a certain other type of blood to prevent agglutination. Group O can donate to anyone because of its lack of antigens, but can only donate to O. A can go to A or AB and B can go to B or AB. AB can only go to AB because of its antibodies. (Martini) There is one other factor in blood typing and that is determining if it is positive or negative. The presence or absence of the RH antigen is what
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