Procrastination may negatively impact professional advancement and general well-being, yet to our knowledge, the relationship with sleep quality has not been investigated. Poor sleep impacts physical and emotional health, underscoring the importance of addressing this potential outcome. It was hypothesized that procrastination will be associated with subjective sleep difficulties, an association mediated by ruminative cognitions. 598 respondents (154 men: Mage = 25.6 ± 3.8; 444 women Mage = 24.8 ± 3.3) completed online questionnaires regarding procrastination, sleep disturbances, rumination, emotional state, and chronotype. A structural equation model approach was used for model testing. Results demonstrated that procrastination positively correlated with sleep disturbance, a link moderated by chronotype, such that self-identified Morning Types reported lower procrastination, fewer sleep disturbances, and the two measures did not correlate. Among Intermediate and Evening Types the relationship between procrastination and sleep was mediated by rumination and negative mood. These findings suggest that addressing the impact on sleep should be one of the targets of interventions for treating procrastination. 1. Introduction “Had I been less firmly resolved upon setting myself definitely to work, I should perhaps have made an effort to begin at once…Unfortunately the morrow was not that vast, external day to which I in my fever had looked forward. When it drew to a close, my
Have any of you ever procrastinated before? If the answer was yes, you would not be the only one. We all procrastinate from time to time. Statistics showed that procrastination affects over 20 percent of the population, and 85 to 95 percent of students have problems associated with procrastination. All the time, not doing the important task when we know we should can lead to anxiety, guilt, stress, and even depression. In the reality, the activities we were doing while procrastinating are never fun or relaxing because we know we should be doing work. So, procrastination is so horrific, then why do we do it? Therefore, today, there are two subtopics procrastination that I want to talk about which are the reasons why we procrastinate and some strategies on how to avoid it.
There are people who consider procrastination as a good thing and so they welcome it into their lives supposing it would favor them because initially they are less affected to stress and illnesses. However, in long-term it only makes their lives more complicated. Anderson, B., Middleton, M., and Llewellyn, S. (2013) claim that
“DURING the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country ; and at length found myself, as the
Response “What does procrastination tell us about ourselves?” In the article “What does procrastination tell us about ourselves?” by James Surowiecki, the main idea is that procrastination is something that happens to the best of people. Procrastination is something that everyone suffers from, whether it’s putting off that important e-mail or dropping something in the mail.
Procrastination is a tendency to postpone, put off, delay, reschedule, take a rain check on, put on ice, hold off, or to defer what is necessary to reach a particular goal.(Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition. Philip Lief Group 2009.) While attending College some students find it hard to juggle work, family, and friends. Leading most students down a dangerous path to procrastination; that negative impact affect students from their physical health, mental health, and social health.
The Association for Psychological Science published in 2013 “There’s no single type of procrastinator, but several general impressions." A professor named Piers Steel from University of Calgary explain this in the following manner: “The act of dillydallying can be boiled down to three human traits: the person's confidence, values, and impulsiveness (how susceptible he or she is to immediate delight).” Sharing three ways of getting side-tracked. “One is the characteristic of people who simply have a hard time getting started on a project, or a classic procrastinator. Another deals with a person who gets started, but then gets bogged down in details, or a classic perfectionist. The last is the person who is distractible, i.e., the student who has the paper to do, but decides to go out when a friend calls.” While our personal characteristics drive our procrastinating habits, the behavior of others can also affect academic procrastination. In “The Self and Parental Attitudes as Predictors of Academic Procrastination” Ulukaya explains a study made in Turkey that investigates the correlation of parental, self-attitudes, and academic procrastination of undergraduate students. The “study group was conducted in which 697 students who were attending various universities during fall 2011.” The results found that parental supervision/control was indeed a predictor of
The study used the General Procrastination Scale (GPS) in order to measure procrastination among participants. The
Procrastination is the act or habit of putting tasks on hold. It is the unnecessary postponement of starting or finishing an undertaking, which eventually leads to distress (Solomon & Rothblum, 1984). The intentional delay of due tasks is very common among students and lately, it has become prevalent in college settings (Rabin, Fogel & Nutter-Upham, 2011).
“Sleeping less has been shown to be associated with higher levels of anxious feelings and negative affect” (Ari, & Shulman, 2013, p. 364). My reflection on the first day helped me realize the negative effect that is often followed by unproductive sleep schedules. Not only do I miss out on my mornings, but I could be starting my day off by doing various activities that I need to do. Because I work many throughout the week and am a full-time student I have responsibilities, but I also like to socialize with my peers, do different activities and travel with my friends. My varied schedules tend to impact my sleep patterns, which lead to an inconsistency throughout my whole week, thus affecting how I function and limits my abilities. Studies have
Since rumination levels were not different between the two chronotypes, we could not include them in the model as mediators. Therefore we performed four mediation analyses, first with objective sleep latency, secondly with the total PSQI score, third with the components of the PSQI and lastly with the components of the sleep diary. We included the sleep parameters in four different models because of their high correlation; ranging from r=0.25 to r=0.70. Mediator analysis showed that subjective sleep parameters such total PSQI b=-4.03, SE=1.43, CI=-7.57,-1.60, sleep quality(PSQI) b=-2.24, SE=1.10, CI=-5.06,-.60; daily dysfunction (PSQI) b=-3.06, SE=.97, CI=-5.31,-1.48; and sleep quality from the sleep diary, b=-2.84, SE=1.50, CI=-6.83,-.63;
To use a Worst-first approach. That way, Chris won’t feel overwhelmed with the big assignments that require more time.
In a meta-analytic and theoretical review of procrastination, it was estimated that between 80-95% of undergraduates experience problematic academic procrastination, with up to 30% experiencing severe procrastination (Steel, 2007). Considering the effect of procrastination on the general, work and academic
Many people believe that procrastination is derived completely from laziness but the culprit could be multiple things, including perfectionism. This can become a huge problem for perfectionists, especially perfectionist students. They most likely will overthink projects and put off getting started because they’re afraid they won’t be able to make them as perfect as they want them to be. Luckily this is a common issue among students and there are many different techniques to cope with it. Students can overcome procrastination due to perfectionism by setting S.M.A.R.T goals, creating detailed to-do lists, and by just getting started.
(Piers Steel, Thomas Brothen, Catherine Wambach 2001) study looks at relationship between procrastination, personality, performance and mood in 152 undergraduates. The study relied on self-evaluations from the participants. The participants first had to complete a
Upon reading the article on Stress Management, I realized that procrastination can definitely cause stress in my life, unwanted and unnecessary stress.For years I have been in a fight with procrastination. I am ashamed to say that I have identified this issue a long time ago and have done nothing to get rid of it. I am even more ashamed to say that about 90% of time procrastination wins. Whether it be a simple wash the bathroom now or no more movies, not to mention take out the garbage now, I allow procrastination to win. I will always say, I can do it later or I have time. This is a negative factor that affects Time and Stress Management.