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Isomers Lab Report

Decent Essays
General Biology I – Hybrid Format W#1 / Ch2 / BIO181 Name: Meghan Woodford

1. Describe each:

Isotope – The term isotope is used to describe elements that contain the same amount of protons, but different amounts of neutrons. For example, two elements of the same type such as Uranium 235 and Uranium 238. 235 only has 143 neutrons, where as 238 has 146.

Isomer – Isomers are molecules that contain the same number of atoms of an element, but are arranged differently. Basically isomers are molecules that have the same chemical formula, or molecular components, but different layouts or shapes rather.

Ion – Ion’s are charged atoms. Basically, they are atoms that have unequal electrons to protons. Ion’s can be either positivity charged (cations)
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However, neutrons do not have a charge. They are neutral… As I said above before I realized this was an actual question… “They are neutral in charge. Hence, the term neu-tron.”

Electrons – Electrons are subatomic particles with a mass greater than protons and neutrons (Questions and answers). They are negatively charged particles that typically orbit around an atom. They can be gained and lost, creating ionized versions of an element.

4. How are covalent bonds formed?
Covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. Each atom involved neither gains nor losses an electron, rather the electron pairs are shared between the atoms involved. This means that there is no change in charge. Covalent bonds are the strongest type of bond. Their strength comes from the fact that there is no loss of electrons. The strength of a covalent bond can vary depending on the amount of elections being shared. The more electrons shared, the stronger the bond. Syntactically speaking, covalent bonds are represented with lines that connect their atomic symbols. Single covalent bonds (the sharing of only one pair of electrons) are represented as H-H. Double covalent bonds (the sharing of two pairs of electrons are represented as O=O. Triple covalent bonds, the strongest of the three (the sharing of three pairs of electrons) are represented
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Electronegativity refers to the tendency of a nucleus of an atom to attract electrons. Higher electronegativity nuclei have a greater pull on electrons and vice versa. Elements with a higher electronegativity are located in the upper right parts of the periodic table, where as elements with lower electronegativity are located towards the bottom left. Polar covalent bonds are a term used to describe two atoms that have polar electronegativity. When this happens, shared electron pairs are more likely to be found closer to the atom with higher electronegativity. Polar covalent bonds are no where strong enough to ionize atoms, however, there is still a small change in
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