Juveniles inherit genetic configurations that makes them susceptible to aggression. Antisocial behaviors and mental disorders are inherited form parent to offspring, just as one inherits certain features or characteristics such as one’s hair, skin, and eye color. One category of generic configurations is through direct connections: (1) antisocial behavior is inhered, (2) genetic makeup is passed down to children, and (3) genetic abnormalities are linked directly to other antisocial behaviors (Siegel & Welsh, 2014, p. 78). Another category is through indirect associations: genes are related to intervening factors that predisposes juveniles to delinquency. For example, juveniles who are unable to experience or have a strong bond with their parents …show more content…
Neurotransmitters or chemical compounds influence an individual’s brain functions. These neurotransmitters include dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, monoamine oxidase (MAO), and gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA), which are mostly related to aggression and antisocial behaviors (Siegel, 2011, p. 115). Researchers have found an association between having abnormal levels of these chemicals and aggression. Low levels of MAO lead to high levels of violence, as well as punishment defiances, impulsivity, and risk taking. According to Siegel (2011) brain chemistry and crime have been linked to a prenatal brain exposure to high levels of androgens resulting in a less sensitive brain structure to environmental inputs (p. 115). In addition, Hun-Soo and Hyun-Sil (2008) stated that brain chemistry plays a tremendous role in aggression, especially those individuals who exhibit recurrent aggressive episodes (p. 28). Thus this theory and its subsequent frameworks clearly attest as to the reasons why juveniles commit crimes. Juveniles are not only predisposed to commit crimes by their generic make up, but are also influenced by their brain activity and
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Genetics and behavior relations has been a controversial topic for several years, however, as time has passed so has the demand for proof or disproof of the relationship. One of the most important reasons for the need to define this relationship is to uncover the truths behind violent or delinquent behavior. Also, it is important that we can weed out people who make false claims that their genes are responsible for their actions in order for us to appropriately distribute penalties or treatment. Another reason is that if we do find truths to these claims we can find ways to treat these behaviors for better outcomes. Though many studies have been conducted to reveal associations, more research is yet to be done that explores all connections and detailed backgrounds of those involved in the studies. To begin validating our theories, we must use genotyping, which is the comparison of an individual’s genetic make-up through exploration of their DNA sequence then comparing it to the DNA sequence of another individual or a reference sample. Utilizing genotyping, we are able to view the alleles an individual inherited from their parents (slide 4).
Modern biology is focused more on understanding behavior, like violence and crime, through research on indicators and influences. Rather than attempting to determine a single root cause, researchers are discovering markers of predisposition and identifying factors of risk. In a recent interview about his new book, The Anatomy of Violence: The Biological Roots of Crime, criminologist and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, Adrian Raine asserts that there is a “biology of violence” that should not be ignored; “Just as there’s a biological basis for schizophrenia and anxiety disorders and depression… there’s a biological basis also to recidivistic violent offending” (Gross, 2013).
It was not a topic that was brought up earlier, because there was tainted history of using biology to figure logistics of criminal behavior. Instead, criminologists look at social and environmental factors such as poverty rates, drug/weapon accessibility, and socialization. Over 100 studies have shown genes play a role in crime. Kevin Beaver, an associate professor at Florida State University’s College of Criminology and Criminal Justice states approximately 50 percent of a human’s aggressive behavior is comprised of the thousands of expressed genes affected by the environment (Cohen). The other half of a human’s aggressive behavior is usually environmental or social factors such as, neighborhood, wealth, and education. It is important to also know the other factors that “make” someone a criminal because it will also help researcher see what else contributes to criminal activity (Eysenck).
Juvenile Delinquency is the participation of illegal behavior by a minor who falls under a statutory age limit. A delinquent is a minor who commits a crime or a status offense. A status offense is conduct that is illegal only because the child is under age i.e. smoking cigarettes (Senna 10, 20). The cases of Eric Smith, Lionel Tate, and an unidentified NJ child are similar only because, they are guilty of killing another child, but the Criminal Justice System treated and punished them very differently. In August 1993 in Savona, New York 13 year old Eric Smith killed 4 year old Derrick Robie. Smith lured Robie into the woods and strangled, beat with large rocks, and sodomized Robie. Smith was questioned by police and kept changing some
Antisocial behavior can commonly be described as disruptive acts of hostility and aggression toward others. Gang or gangs is described as an organized group of criminals. This essay will discuss the nature and scope of juvenile antisocial behavior as it relates to organized gangs, discuss three of the most common forms of antisocial behavior in organized gangs, and discuss three proactive solutions to gang violence.
Evidence indicates that genetic factors may play a role in development of disruptive behavior disorders (Hansell & Damour, 2005). A biological structure of an infant’s brain has preposition genes and chemical responses to develop into an adult (Perry, 2002). Disorders in lifespan development are not biologically set to occur (Dombeck, 2010). Issues’ dealing with environment, education, and way of life has made changes in developments, childhood behavior keeps a child on a continuum between normal and abnormal behavior (Hansell & Damour, 2005). Several disorders currently exist in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR) because studies on children, adolescent, and young adult disorders evolved from DSM-II (Hansell & Damour, 2005).
When it comes to juvenile delinquency an adolescent personality is usually impacted from different factors such as early child hood experiences of witnessing a crime, seeing a violent act, being the victim of a crime, or being around others or family who engaged in criminal activity, these factors can either create an adolescent with a positive or negative attitude, or an anti-social behavior which could create a path for a delinquent behavior (Wilson, p. 34). A study has shown that family interactions accounts for about 40 percent of the cause of an adolescent with an anti-social behavior, the study also shown that aggressiveness which is a common trait of adolescent who engage in delinquent acts is usually created from peer influences (Wilson, p. 34).
An estimated heritability rate of 40-50% was found in retrospective reports. Plus, a considerable amount of evidence of prospective reports showed 40-70% of heritability rate in genetic influence in boys and girls with symptoms of conduct disorder (Dick et al. 2011). Genes contribute to half of the variance in antisocial behavior, and the other half is distributed to the non-shared environment (J. C. Barnes and Bruce A. Jacobs,2013) Molecular genetics has already produced a plethora of insights into these links. For example, certain genetic polymorphisms have been associated with various antisocial behaviors such as ADHD, childhood conduct disorder, and adulthood violent
This essay will compare and contrast some psychological and sociological approaches to studying juvenile delinquency and disorder behaviour. The question is what makes people behave disorderly. Youth disorderly behaviours are studied using different approaches including psychological and sociological approaches. Both psychological and sociological approaches to studying juvenile delinquency are necessary. This essay starts with outlining and defining disorderly behaviour and juvenile delinquency. Then, it will look at the work of Eysenck, the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development research which was a longitude study and the Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential theory by Farrington, all fit in psychological approach; studying the connection between personality and disorder. It will then look at Sociological approach by looking at the work of Howard Becker, Stan Cohen and Stuart Hall. This essay will be analysing and comparing their theories and separating the differences and noting the similarities in their ideas. This essay will provide evidence for each theory. It will then conclude by specifying significant similarities and differences in the light of the evidence presented.
The principles of the biological theories allow us the understanding that all biological theories should evaluate common factors that relate to each other from one biological theory to the other (Schmalleger, 2012). The first parts of the biological theory assess the importance for the theories to make a connection between criminal behavior and the human brain and a person’s personality and the studies of neurology and neurochemistry. This meaning that a person’s ability to control antisocial behavior stems from their environment and the and family genes gives the person directly into right and wrong. There is also a standard that should evaluate the connection between different groups such a sex and racial makeup that that of criminal behavior as well as human instinctive behavior (Dretske, 2014). The link between the evolutionary development of a person criminal behavior or ability to
One factor that influences the likelihood of criminal behavior involves a person’s genetics. Certain inherited behaviors can lead people to be more likely to have criminal behaviors. Stated in the article "The Criminal Mind,” Arian Raine explains, “More than 100 studies of twins and adopted children have confirmed that about half of the variance in aggressive and antisocial behavior can be attributed to genetics.” (Raine). Aggressive and antisocial behaviors are found in many criminals. Research proves that these behaviors can be due to genetics, and this makes these behaviors a genetic influence to criminal behavior. Additionally, anybody can be a criminal, but gender plays a role in their chances as well. In the article “Born
Behavioral neuroscience or biological psychology employs the principles of brain pathology to the study of human behavior through genetic, physiological, and developmental operations, as well as, the brain’s capacity to change with experience. Since the second world war, crime was largely attributed to mostly economic, political, and social factors, along with what psychologists termed at the time, the “weak character” of mental disturbance, and brain biology was rarely considered. However, new advances in neuroscience and technology have allowed a number of studies that link brain development, impairment, and injury to criminal violence. This emerging field of psychology explores the brain at a microscopic level, focusing studies on the roles that the brain’s neurons, circuitry, neurotransmitters, and basic biological processes play in defining and molding all human behavior.
Through an understanding of causes of juvenile delinquency society may come to deal preventively with delinquency; certainly treatment of the offender needs to be based upon an understanding of the causal mechanisms that have produced him. In this paper we'll describe three theories of juvenile delinquency such as Social Learning Theory, General Strain Theory and Behavioral Theory and discuss appropriate preventive programs based upon these theories.
Characteristically, juvenile delinquency follows a similar path just like normal adolescent development and children tend to follow delinquent and criminal behavior rather than engaging in it randomly. Research has shown that there are two types of delinquents, those in whom the onset of severe antisocial behavior begins in early childhood, and those in whom this onset coincides with entry into adolescence. With either type, these developmental paths give families, communities, and systems the opportunity to intervene and prevent the onset of antisocial behaviors and justice system involvement (APA, 2017).
A traumatic childhood may predispose a child to violence against themselves or against others, in adolescence or adulthood. This information is and has been off the records, but so far no known relationship between the magnitude of traumatic experiences and different forms of violence at puberty. A study published in Pediatrics, which involved 136,549 U.S. students between 12 and 17 has been commissioned to evaluate this relationship. The researchers sought to determine six adverse experiences for which they had passed the boys in childhood and physical and sexual abuse, witnessing abuse or problems at home by alcohol or drugs taken by a relative. Then he saw the violent behavior at puberty: crime, harassment, bullying, dating violence,