UEES | Krashen´s Theory | Theory of Second Language Acquisition | | Gisella Coka | 13/01/2012 |
"Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill." Stephen Krashen |
This paper is going to talk about Krashen's theory of second language acquisition, which has had a large impact in all areas of second language research and teaching since the 1980s.
There are 5 keys hypotheses about second language acquisition in Krashen´s theory: 1. THE ACQUISITION-LEARNING DISCTINCTION
There are two independent systems of second language performance: 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The 'acquired system' or 'acquisition' is the product of a…show more content… 3. THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS
The Natural Order hypothesis is based on research findings (Dulay & Burt, 1974; Fathman, 1975; Makino, 1980 cited in Krashen, 1987) which suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a 'natural order' which is predictable. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learners' age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition. 4. THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS
The Input hypothesis is Krashen's explanation of how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. According to this, the learner improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. Since not all of