Results and discussions: The structure of the prepared material was investigated employing many techniques such as X-rays diffraction, SEM and TEM electron microscopy. In order to scrutinize the crystal structure of the samples X-rays diffraction was carried out using diffractometer XPERT-MPDUG, Philips PW3040. Figure (1) depicts the X-ray diffraction of the as synthesized samples. It can be seen that the nature of the sample is formed in poly crystalline form. The most important peaks are displayed. The most intense peaks were indexed to be 201, 011, 111, 400, 311, 102, 020, and 112. The indexed peaks correspond to single pure orthorhombic phase according to ICDD card 83-1758 (75-2115). The reflection planes, regarding the ICDD card, are
*…show more content…*

Regarding the data in Table (1), the crystallite size based on Scherrer equation is smaller than that based on the other two methods. Obviously this can be attributed to the contribution of strain to line profile broadening which is neglected in Scherrer equation and can be approved as follow: The sample broadening contribution BT can be written, for Scherrer consideration, as [9]: BT = Bsc (1) where Bsc, the Sherrer broadening, is given by the widely used expression Bsc = K.λ / [Dsc cosθ] (2) where Dsc is the Sherrer domain size and the other symbols have their usual meaning. For Williamson-Hall treaty, BT can be written as [10]: BT = BS + BST (3) where BS is the broadening domain size contribution and BST represents the strain broadening contribution. BS = K.λ / [DWH cosθ] (4) BST = 4 η tanθ (5) where DWH is the Williamson-Hall domain size and η is the micro-strain. From (1), (2), (4) and (5) in (3) then K.λ / [Dsc cosθ] = K.λ / [DWH cosθ] + 4 η tanθ, Finally 1/ Dsc = 1/ DWH + 4 η sinθ / Kλ. (6) According to equation (6), Dsc must be less than DWH. The domain size calculated by Scherrer equation must also be less than that based on Warren- Averbach method. Another criterion should be

Related

- Better Essays
## Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Tube

- 2183 Words
- 9 Pages

{N} and {M} are the generalised stresses can can be expressed as membrane strains and curvatures by using the laminar stress-strain relationship and Love Kirchhoff hypothesis.

- 2183 Words
- 9 Pages

Better Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Lab Report On The Lab

- 3168 Words
- 13 Pages

I think this objective means that we need to make sure we understand the procedure or steps for the lab. Knowing the steps for the lab is extremely important because especially in chemistry if something is done out of order it can be dangerous. So recording the procedure in our lab book is important. This relates to my major of Political Science in that in Political Science, recording down things accurately is very important and if something isn’t recorded accurately it could be dangerous like in chemistry lab. In my lab report for the Density Lab I recorded the steps to the lab. The objective of that lab was to find out what procedure was preferable for finding density. This made it very important to makes sure the experimental procedure was recorded accurately.

- 3168 Words
- 13 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Decent Essays
## Atkinson Reaction Lab

- 678 Words
- 3 Pages

Where σ1 and σ2 are the stresses at temperatures T1 and T2. Calculating the values for t at different values temperatures values shows that the stress strain curve is not dependent on the temperature.

- 678 Words
- 3 Pages

Decent Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Home Worksss

- 1065 Words
- 5 Pages

From Figure 7.24, the elastic modulus is the slope in the elastic linear region of the 20C curve, which is

- 1065 Words
- 5 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Better Essays
## Strain Gauges

- 2432 Words
- 10 Pages

Where ε1, ε2 and ε3 are the measurements from the rosette gauges and α, β and ϕ are the angles each strain gauge makes to the axis of the beam.

- 2432 Words
- 10 Pages

Better Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Finite Element Results Of The Beams Model

- 1553 Words
- 7 Pages

Figures from (5.138) to (5.143) show the principal strain Ӏ for B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 and B6.

- 1553 Words
- 7 Pages

Satisfactory Essays - Decent Essays
## James Watson And Francis Crick And The Double Helix Summary

- 1147 Words
- 5 Pages

Summary: X-ray crystallography is a form of x-ray diffraction using crystalline structures. First, a crystal structure is grown that possesses the molecule being studied. The structure is grown most often using vapor diffusion to grow the correct size and shape molecule. Wavelengths are passed through, and then thoroughly analyzed to create a picture that reflects the molecule. Many atoms are too small to pinpoint, so at the end of the process a two dimensional picture is generated, and then transformed into a three dimensional model for each atom.

- 1147 Words
- 5 Pages

Decent Essays - Decent Essays
## Data Analysis Of DNA By The Standard Crystallographic Method

- 842 Words
- 4 Pages

The structure of 2 was determined by the standard crystallographic method, using a colorless plate crystal (0.028 × 0.034 × 0.046 mm3) of 2 for single crystal data analysis. All the data were collected using a Bruker SMART BREEZE diffractometer equipped with a 1K CCD area detector using graphite monochromated Mo Kα radiation at 200 K. A hemisphere of data was collected using a narrow-frame method with the scan widths of 0.30° in omega and an exposure time of 5 s/frame. The first 50 frames were remeasured at the end of the data collection to monitor the instrument and crystal stability. The maximum correction applied to the intensities was 2σ(I). All the calculations were performed using the WinGX-98 crystallographic software package

- 842 Words
- 4 Pages

Decent Essays - Decent Essays
## Drug Content Of Spray Dried Powder Samples

- 1380 Words
- 6 Pages

Crystallinity was investigated by XRD analysis using X’Pert PRO MPD X-ray diffractometer (PANalytical, Auckland, New Zealand). Powder samples

- 1380 Words
- 6 Pages

Decent Essays - Decent Essays
In addition to these, specific surface can also be calculated using known thermo-dynamic properties, microscopy, diffusiveness of X-Rays, etc. But the paper focusses on the two methods mentioned earlier.

- 985 Words
- 4 Pages

Decent Essays - Better Essays
## Functions For The Volume Of The Study Block Diagram

- 2297 Words
- 10 Pages

where E is the Young 's modulus; u axial displacement; and A is the cross-section area. Interpolation model is based on the equations mentioned in section 4. Here, variables include the displacement vector

- 2297 Words
- 10 Pages

Better Essays - Decent Essays
## The correlation method is based upon the fact that a particular mode can be infrared active only if

- 500 Words
- 2 Pages

To start with the correlation method, the crystallographic information of the compound has to be known exactly and this crystallographic information is obtained from the international tables for X-ray crystallography [72]. Much important information is gathered from irreducible representation of the crystal as it allows predicting the

- 500 Words
- 2 Pages

Decent Essays - Better Essays
## The Behavior Of Binary Alloys

- 3770 Words
- 16 Pages

The two main methods of studying the order and configuration of alloys are X-rays diffuse scattering and Monte Carlo simulations. The former can be used to study individual “sections” (i.e. short range order) but is extensive as individual experiments on single crystals are needed. In order to study the

- 3770 Words
- 16 Pages

Better Essays - Better Essays
## Tetrafluoro Phthalate Crystalss And Their Types Of Crystals

- 999 Words
- 4 Pages

Since, for the past three decades, one could see that there are lot of developments in science and technology- especially, in the fields of electronics, fibre-optic communication and lasers [12]. The scientific community achieving this development in functional materials through the single crystals of Si, Ge and GaAs with NLO properties [13]. To enable a material to be potentially useful for NLO applications the material should be available in bulk Tetrafluoro Phthalate crystals (TFP). Also research into the growth of large single crystals TFP of from aqueous solution is currently serving as the important avenue to general progress in understanding many fundamental concepts of crystallization [14]. The effect of seed of different orientations on the habit of c and the change of morphology while doping with dyes have been investigated [15].

- 999 Words
- 4 Pages

Better Essays - Decent Essays
## Lab Report

- 1788 Words
- 8 Pages

Azam khan a, Umair Alam a, Danish Ali a, Detlef Bahnemann b, M. Muneer a,*

- 1788 Words
- 8 Pages

Decent Essays