Research Paper: Purpose in Life and Incidence of Sleep Disturbances.
Among researchers, typically, purpose in life is described as when an individual has a sense of meaning, directedness, and fulfillment in his or her life. It is linked with having positive mental health, healthy behaviors, physical health and longevity. According to longitudinal studies completed in the past, the greater purpose has been linked with reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and heart attack (Boule et al., 2010).
Sleep Disturbances can mean any of the following things: difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, waking too early, or not feeling well rested upon awakening. According to Ancoli-Israel, 2009 and Foley et al., 2004, sleep disturbances are associated with higher rates of problems, mental illnesses, cognitive impairment, and death. Therefore, this study stresses that by identifying novel factors that can reduce the incidence of sleep disturbance will lead to new strategies that can help improve sleep problems.
Kim, Hershner, Strecher hypothesized that having a purpose in life is associated with reduced incidence of sleep disturbances. To test this hypothesis the individuals who completed this study used a longitudinal sample of adults over the age of 50, from a large, nationally representative panel of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and multiple logistic regression models. Little research has been done on this topic, however, this study did build on prior research to
Click here to unlock this and over one million essaysGet Access
Sleep is a biological fact of life that often does not receive the greatest amount of attention and priority. Understanding the causes of why some individuals, and even societies, choose not to have adequate amounts of sleep leads to inconsistent results. However, the consequences of not getting enough of sleep are worth noting. While some individuals choose to sacrifice the amount of sleep they have on a regular basis, others do not have that choice and suffer not only from a lack of sleep but also a reduction in the quality of sleep. Not having enough quality sleep leads to a reduction in the ability to regulate physical, mental, and emotional demands, as well as reductions in the performance
Sleep has a major function in the physical and mental health of an individual. It is important to assess elements of sleep disorders when evaluating for any mental health condition. According to Perese (2012), “Psychiatric disorders characterized by sleep disturbances include anxiety disorders, depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer’s disease” (pp 222-223). Normal sleep length should be at least 7 or 7.5 hours per night and when poor sleep pattern exists, it could affect alertness, memory, cognition, creativity and quality of life (Perese, 2012). Sleep-wake disorders can be described as any problem with sleeping including; difficulty falling or staying asleep, sleeping too much, sleeping at the wrong time and abnormal behaviors during sleep (MedlinePlus, 2015). According to DSM-5 (2013), “Sleep-wake disorders encompasses 10 disorders or disorder groups: insomnia disorder, hypersomnolence disorder, narcolepsy, breathing-related sleep disorders, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep arousal disorders, nightmare disorder, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder, restless leg syndrome, and substance/medication-induced sleep disorder” (p. 361).
Have you ever considered the importance of sleep and the impact it can have on your health? It is likely that most of us have experienced trouble sleeping at some point in our lives. This is typical and usually lasts for a short period of time due to stress or other various factors. However, if it becomes a regular occurrence then perhaps you may be suffering from some type of sleeping disorder. Sleep disorders can be detrimental to one’s physical and mental health disrupting the actions of your daily life.
There are studies that have shown that sleep and dreaming are linked to learning and to repair the body and mind. If we were to stop REM sleep or dreaming, the body recovers by increasing dream sleep first, recovering the loss of REM almost precisely. This suggests that dreaming is important. It has been observed that a lack of sleep causes waking dreams, interruption with memory and learning, difficulty of thinking straight, less associations, and more. It has therefore been suggested that REM or dream sleep is important in maintaining our well-being.
Sufficient sleep is defined as 7 or more hours in a 24-hour period. Poor sleep health is a common problem in the U.S. with 25 percent of adults reporting insufficient sleep for at least 15 out 30 days (2009). Over the last 30 years, the odds of being a short sleeper (less than 6 hours a night) has increased notably in the United States (Knutson et al. 2010). Currently, it is estimated that approximately 70 million Americans have sleep problems and that nearly 60 percent of them have a chronic disorder. Possible chronic disorders include; sleep apnea, narcolepsy, insomnia, parasomnia, jet-lag syndrome, and disturbed circadian rhythms (National Institutes of Health).
85 sleep disorders affect more than 70 million people across America (Borreli, 2014). There are many contributing factors to why people don’t get enough sleep, and also many long term effects it can have on them. Generally, lack of sleep can be caused by stress, mental or medical problems, or even just choosing to stay up late. The effects it can have on a person’s body can be sometimes deadly, while other times they are treatable or not as serious. Treating insomnia, sleep apnea, or any other type of loss of sleep can consist of a regular sleep schedule and limiting caffeine, alcohol, or energy drinks. The amount of sleep a person gets depends on their age, and also any mental or medical problems they may have. People 13 and under generally
When a person lives with a purpose and is purposeful during their day, they receive many more benefits than someone who lives without a purpose. In a study in the Journal of Positive Psychology, 400 American adults were surveyed and asked to fill out surveys over a period of weeks. “These surveys asked people to answer a series of questions, their happiness
Imagine after a lengthy and hard working day you finally lay your head to rest. You look forward for a good night sleep to recharge for another productive eventful day. This is your peaceful time in which you shut down all your problems even yourself, but you realize you have other issues lurking from within your mind. You may have an idea on what is happening or you may not, but you know for a fact you are not getting any sleep. Maybe you are the complete opposite and you are able to fall into deep sleep. Once you fall into deep sleep though you begin to have many night terrors that could possibly put you in harm. Whether we like it or not sleep disturbances is an issue that I believe we should all be aware of its effects
It can be widely stated that life holds meaning when the individual living it understands it to matter in some greater sense and when it holds significance outside of inconsequential or temporary moments (King, Hicks, Krull, & Del Gaiso, 2006). A wide range of evidence exists in support of the pursuit of meaningful goals and the determination of direction in life (i.e. establishing a sense of purpose) among adults. More specifically, these concepts have been found to correspond with several positive outcomes within adult populations, namely increased positive affect (PA; King et al., 2006), happiness and satisfaction in life (Heisel & Flett, 2004; Scannell, Allen, & Burton, 2002), psychological well-being (Ryff, 1989; Wong & Fry, 1998; Zika & Chamberlain, 1992), self-efficacy (DeWitz, Woosley, & Walsh, 2009), and resilience (Frankl, 1959; Masten & Reed, 2002). However, the processes found to be underlying these positive
There are only twenty four hours in a day there is a race for time and many are willing to sacrifice whatever it takes in order to complete or fulfill their needs. Today most individuals decided to give up sleep; this isn't just a problem within college student. Every single individual has sacrificed sleep and faced sleep deprivation in order to complete a homework assignment, chores, or finish up paperwork from work. However, sleep is essential for overall health and wellbeing. Sleep deprivation is when an individual does not meet the requirement of sleep one should be getting. About 40 million Americans suffer from 70 different sleep disorder (American Psychological Association). There are many debates about how many hours of sleep a
Throughout the history of mankind we have constantly asked ourselves what our purpose is and if that purpose has meaning. Philosophers and religious leaders alike have answered these questions and many other essential questions that cross through our minds at one point or another. However, we as individuals must consider the answers proposed by others, and use their ideas as a foundation for the building of our own. By using the ideas that Dante, Soyinka, Shelly, and Borges propose in their literature I was able to build a foundation for my own answer to the question of what our purpose is and if there is any meaning to our lives. I feel that our purpose is too
The hypothesis currently being researched is the assumption that sleep deprivation has and will continue to have serious consequences on the human body including mental well being and cognitive performance (Alhola & Polo-Kantola, 2007). The specific study conducted by the National Sleep Foundation (2007) indicated that it is common in everyday life for the majority of individuals to experience prolonged wakefulness due to acute total sleep deprivation as a result of a high paced lifestyle. Sleep studies are completely relevant to our society as this problem is widespread, meaning it does not
Having a purpose provides you with energy and positivity in life. You'll move faster, walk faster and act faster because there are so much to accomplish. Happiness and fulfillment tends to follow right behind your purpose.
Sleep deprivation is a global epidemic around the world. In Africa and Asia research have shown that millions of people have been suffering from sleep related problems. Current study shows that sleep disturbances is a significant public health issue affecting older