Literature Review On Vaccine

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Chapter No: 3
Literature Review:
A vaccine is a basically biological preparation that provides acquired immunity to a specific disease. A vaccine contains specific antigen that produce specific antibodies It is often made from weak or killed forms of the microorganism. The antigens stimulate the body's immune system to recognize the specific agent as a alarm, work against it, and keep its memory it so that the immune system can more easily work and destroy these specific microorganisms. Vaccines is prophylactic used in most of the conditions. (23)
The administration of specific vaccines is for specific diseases. The effectiveness and efficacy of vaccines is widely tested and confirmed. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent infectious and contagious diseases and herd immunity is achieved due to vaccination and largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the control of some diseases such as polio, measles, and
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The efficacy or effectiveness of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors; some diseases vaccination performs better than for others, some vaccines are very specific and most effective against particular strains of the disease. Idiosyncratic response some vaccination; some individuals are "non-responders" to some specific vaccines. It means that they do not generate antibodies even after vaccination accurately and adequately. There are some common factors such as ethnicity, age, or genetics. The following are important considerations in the effectiveness of a routine vaccination program; careful judge the impact that an immunization campaign would have effects on the epidemiology of the diseases. Ongoing surveillance system must be in place for the specific diseases and follow by introduction of a new vaccine depend upon current situation, maintain high immunization rates in the areas, even when a disease would become
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