Literature Review : The Small Hydropower ( Shp )

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CHAPTER 1 LITERATURE REVIEW 1.1 SMALL HYDROPOWER (SHP) AAAAAAA 1. Powers et al (1985) did an assessment study on the fishway development and design. Method of water control and the degree and type of water control were formed the basis to classify fish passes. Swimming speed of the fishes was related to their lengths for designing the fish passes. Energy required by the fishes upstream was determined for three scenarios: (i) passing through the pools in fishways (ii) ascending a sloping channel like waterfall or spillway (iii) jumping over a weir or waterfall. [23] 2. Kamula et al (2000) studied the effects of modifications on the hydraulics of Denil fishways. The location of the highest velocities in the cross section of Denil fish passes was determined to be on the sides and not in the center. Since there is a non- uniform flow in the fish passes hence the velocities are not symmetrically distributed along the mid-axis. The plots for dimensionless discharge for the studied designs and for the standard Denil pass were found to be almost parallel to each other. The topmost portion of the Denil fishpass is subjected to higher velocities so must be designed accordingly. [24] 3. Boubée et al (2003) studied the downstream migration and passage technologies for diadromous fishes in the United States and New Zealand. Intake screens in the form of rotating drums have been the most

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