Literature Summary Of Thorax

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Review of literature

Thorax is a composed of many integrated systems including the muscles, bones and other soft tissues organ systems, the biomechanics of which, impart the thorax a high mechanical resistance to injury, mainly due to distinctive elastic properties of the rib and spine system supported by muscles. So, understanding the complex mechanics of the thorax is critical for understanding the vast multiplex of injuries sustained in various different circumstances.


The skeleton of the thoracic wall is formed by

• the spinal column and 12 thoracic vertebrae
• the sternum
• 12 paired ribs and costal cartilages

The sternum

It is a dagger-shaped bone, which forms the anterior part of the thoracic cage and consists of three parts.
• The manubrium
• The body
• The xiphoid process

The ribs
The ribs run in an oblique, inferior direction from their posterior articulation to their anterior articulation. For example, rib 2 articulates with the T2 vertebra posteriorly but with the sternal angle at the T4 vertebral level anteriorly.

There are three types of ribs

1) True ribs –

1st to 7th ribs which attach directly to the sternum through their own costal cartilages.

2) False ribs –

8th to 10th ribs which are connected to the cartilage of the rib above them

3) Floating ribs –

11th and 12th rib which do not connect even indirectly with the sternum

Ribs can be further classified as –

1) Typical ribs – 3rd to 9th.

• A typical rib has a head, neck,

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