Review of literature
Thorax is a composed of many integrated systems including the muscles, bones and other soft tissues organ systems, the biomechanics of which, impart the thorax a high mechanical resistance to injury, mainly due to distinctive elastic properties of the rib and spine system supported by muscles. So, understanding the complex mechanics of the thorax is critical for understanding the vast multiplex of injuries sustained in various different circumstances.
The skeleton of the thoracic wall is formed by
• the spinal column and 12 thoracic vertebrae
• the sternum
• 12 paired ribs and costal cartilages
It is a dagger-shaped bone, which forms the anterior part of the thoracic cage and consists of three parts.
• The manubrium
• The body
• The xiphoid process
The ribs run in an oblique, inferior direction from their posterior articulation to their anterior articulation. For example, rib 2 articulates with the T2 vertebra posteriorly but with the sternal angle at the T4 vertebral level anteriorly.
There are three types of ribs
1) True ribs –
1st to 7th ribs which attach directly to the sternum through their own costal cartilages.
2) False ribs –
8th to 10th ribs which are connected to the cartilage of the rib above them
3) Floating ribs –
11th and 12th rib which do not connect even indirectly with the sternum
Ribs can be further classified as –
1) Typical ribs – 3rd to 9th.
• A typical rib has a head, neck,
Our bone tissues are made of a much harder substance than the cartilage, but they can be worn away by friction. They are tough on the outside, but on the inside they have a sponge-like design that helps to reduce the weight while retaining strength. They are designed to maintain the body’s structure and support the body’s movement and are used to protect weaker tissues, such as the brain, lungs and heart.
The ﬁbula (slender long bone that lies parallel with and on the lateral side of the
Upper chest, sub sternal radiating to neck and jaw, sub sternal radiating down left arm, epigastric, epigastric radiating to neck, jaw, and arms, neck and jaw, left shoulder ad down both arms, and intrascapular
Some examples include the following: clavicle, coccyx, femur, fibula, foramen magnum, mandible, maxilla, metatarsals, ossify, phalanges, radius, scapula, sternum, suture, tibia, ulna, and vertebra. All of these terms are associated with the skeletal system. The mandible, maxilla, and foramen magnum are located in the cervical vertebrae. The clavicle, scapula, and sternum are located in the thoracic vertebrae. The lumbar vertebra contains the humerus, ulna, and radius. The coccyx is located in the sacral vertebrae. The femur, fibula, metatarsals, phalanges, and tibia are located in the appendicular skeleton. The sutures are located in the skull. The vertebrae is the backbone of the body. Ossification is the formation of bone. These terms are important in knowing and learning the skeletal system.
The term "ribs" is defined as curved bones that surround the entire chest and protect the vital organs and blood vessels, and expand and contract to allow for efficient breathing.
The sternum is divided into three regions: the manubrium, the body, and the xiphoid process. The body and the manubrium are joined at the sternal angle, where the second rib attaches. The manubrium and body have
It is a large muscle. It sits in a horizontal position crossing the bottom of the rib cage. It connects to the front, back, and sides of the lower rib cage. It has an oval shape and turned over bowl look.
A bird 's breastbone, or sternum, is shaped like a keel to attach the powerful wing muscles. The bones of a bird 's wings are surprisingly small compared to the size of the wing. All the bones and muscles of the wing are in the front and covered with feathers that protect and streamline the wing. The actual flight feathers are attached to the wing within little pits in the bones.