A lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is a type of rechargeable battery which uses a lithium ion that moves from a positive electrode (cathode) to a negative electrode (anode) during charging and vice versa during discharge. Lithium-ion batteries are less environmentally damaging than batteries containing heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury, but recycling them is still far preferable to incinerating them or sending them to landfill. Lithium ion batteries are made up of one or more generating compartments called cells. Each cell is composed of three components: an anode, a cathode, and a chemical called an electrolyte in between them.
Lithium-ion batteries are becoming more common in portable electronic devices due to their high-energy density, lack of memory effect, and high charge and discharge rate capabilities. Research and development work is ongoing to improve safety and increase capacity, charge/discharge rate, and lifetime. Demand for electric vehicle batteries is currently small, but it is expected to grow very quickly. China, Japan, South Korea, France, and the United States are the major lithium-ion battery manufacturers for hybrid and electric vehicle applications.
A lot of information from different sources was gathered with the purpose of comparing different Li-ion batteries mechanisms, cathode and anode materials, structure and fabrication procedures, and their respective advantages and disadvantages.
Structure of a lithium ion cell
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A fuel cell is, in principle, a very simple electrochemical device. The chemical reaction that powers hydrogen fuel cells is the same as that which occurs when hydrogen burns. The chemical equation for this reaction is: 2H2 + O2 ( 2H2O + energy. "Normally hydrogen burns, reacting with oxygen from the air, producing water, heat and light. ... In the fuel cell the chemical reaction is exactly the same, but instead of producing light and heat energy, electrical energy is produced."2 All fuel cells consist of an electrolyte (a substance that allows only the passage of ions) sandwiched between two electrodes. When a fuel containing hydrogen is passed over the negative electrode, otherwise known as an anode, it is ionized. Ionization of the fuel, often accomplished with the assistance of a catalyst, removes electrons from the hydrogen creating positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged free electrons. Since only the ions can pass through the electrolyte situated between the electrodes, the electrons must find another route to the positive electrode or cathode, where they will be reunited with the hydrogen ions and combined with oxygen atoms to form water. The electrons passing around the electrolyte constitute an electric current, and thus can be used to provide power during their journey from anode to cathode.3
The graph shown above compares the different classes of lithium ion batteries that are available today in terms of their specific capacities. The Nickel Cobalt Aluminium combination is by far the most productive lithium ion battery till date. The Lithium Cobalt Oxide battery and the Nickel Manganese Cobalt battery also have a decent amount of energy capacity. The graph also seems to reveal that research on batteries have come a long way from the conventional lead acid batteries.
Gaidos begins by using statements made by material scientist George Crabtree of the Argonne national laboratory to acknowledge the accomplishments of the more traditional lithium-ion battery, and explain how new batteries could improve upon them. Lithium-ion batteries did alter individual electronics in an enormous way but they are limited in larger
A battery is a gadget that changes over synthetic vitality into electrical vitality. Every battery has two terminals, an anode (the positive end) and a cathode (the negative end). An electrical circuit keeps running between these two anodes, experiencing a synthetic called an electrolyte (which can be either fluid or strong). This unit comprising of two anodes is known as a phone (regularly called a voltaic cell or heap). Batteries are utilized to control numerous gadgets and make the sparkle that begins a gas motor.
Since lithium battery is a non-hazardous waste as long as it's disposed when fully or mostly charge, the source of lithium as a hazardous waste is incompletely discharged lithium batteries. Lithium batteries produce this hazardous waste since they contain lithium that becomes dangerous when incompletely discharged. The batteries can be handled as hazardous wastes depending on their reactivity characteristics and hazardous waste attributes. The degree of hazard in lithium battery cells is normally based on several factors including the quantity of accumulated cells, the condition of the cells, storing procedures, transportation, and disposal.
Kirsch’s main argument in the article is that there are no better storage batteries for the electric vehicle despite smaller technological changes or improvements that have relatively enhanced the capability of these vehicles. The expectations for better storage batteries were not realized though the electric vehicle was
Electrical vehicles technology has been present for a while and is a proven technology that need only reshaping to meet the global need. Though, in the past, the technology had failed to compete with the internal combustion engine due to initial cost, the technology has done well in the past few years. Electric vehicle ability to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon and carbon dioxide and the advantages it enjoys such as low maintenance and running cost can enhance it market competitiveness. However, as experts try to make its charging system more efficient and its ability to store charge more long lasting, the global need continue to rise. The research proposal, therefore, aim at addressing an issue like government involvement can enhance improved use of EV, development of better EV batteries, energy management system and fast charging can help enhance the use of Electrical Vehicles and how electric vehicle drive train and the battery can be redesigned to make it affordable.
Electric cars are becoming very popular in today’s world and are becoming more main stream. One reason for this is the need for automobiles that have a lower or a zero carbon footprint. For the majority of the history of the automobile, the propulsion system was a gas or a diesel engine that would run off of fossil fuels. The burning of fossil fuels is very hazardous to our world and also creates much toxic pollution. However, electric cars run off of electricity, which is a very clean and pollution free resource, depending on how the electricity was produced of course. In this paper we are going to examine the history of electric cars, look into modern electric car technology, and peer into the future of electric car technology to see if EVs might be the answer to dramatically reducing our global pollution.
The relatively higher cost of EVs has held the market back from fully competing with conventional vehicles. The cost of batteries is the primary factor behind PEVs’ high label price. Batteries make up roughly one-third of the cost of today’s electric vehicles. Further more, electric vehicles require batteries with both high endurance and power, and there is often a tradeoff between these capacities. The term battery pack has been used in to refer to battery of electric vehicles. According to Wikipedia, “Components of battery packs include the individual batteries or cells, and the interconnects which provide electrical conductivity between them”. Battery pack technology has been one of the main interests of automobile companies since configuration
There is a serious problem facing the world right now. It is air pollution. The number one contributor to this epidemic is automobile emissions. We have all heard of the issues that are involved with air pollution including the depletion of the o-zone layer, the green house effect, and acid rain. The problem has been scoped from every imaginable angle, and now it is time to solve the problem. I propose that each of the ‘Big Three’ (Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler) car manufacturers be required to have 10% of their product line as EV’s By the year 2010. I propose this because it will be the start of cleaner air, EV advancement, and awareness of EV’s and how they work.
1. BYD Company, Ltd. (“BYD”) is the world’s second largest manufacturer of rechargeable batteries. Exhibit 1 shows that between 1999 and 2001, BYD’s annual sales grew three times - exceeding RMB 1.3 billion in 2001. Based on the first four months of 2002, BYD’s annual sales are expected exceed RMB 1.6 billion in 2002. Founded in 1995 by Wang Chuan-Fu, chairman and president, BYD has built its reputation by becoming the largest Chinese supplier of lithium-ion batteries to cell phone manufacturers. Exhibit 3 shows that by 2002, BYD was among the top four manufactures worldwide - and was the largest Chinese manufacturer – in each of the three main battery technologies (with about 9% market share in Li-ion
The energy storage technology is quite important for electric hybrid vehicles and pure electric vehicles due to requirement of more power and more efficient with minor compromise on weight and volume. The challenge for developing more advanced energy storage system is capacity or energy density and specific power cannot be achieved at the same time. More specific power means less energy density, and vice versa. The supercapacitor Li-ion hybrid energy storage system has both advantages of these two kinds of energy storage technology. It has high energy density as well as high specific power. The paper will introduce about this hybrid energy storage system, discuss about its advantages and drawbacks, and compare this system with other kinds of energy storage systems.