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Meiosis and Mitosis Essay example

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Mitosis and meiosis are the means by which reproduction takes place. Mitosis creates an exact duplicate of cell so that old cells can be replaced, such as in skin, hair, and bones. Meiosis allows a cell to unite one half of its genetic makeup with a cell from another partner to create an entirely new organism.
Mitosis
Mitosis is the process by which two daughter cells are formed, each containing a complete set of chromosomes. Mitosis is the process by which an organism creates new cells, such as skin or bone. There are two parts to a cell's life – interphase and mitosis. Interphase is the normal life of the cell when all of the growth and metabolism processes take place. Mitosis happens after interphase is complete and produces an
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Meiosis is broken into two parts called Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
Meiosis I
The stages of Meiosis I are called prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I. Prophase I is like prophase in mitosis. However, in metaphase I, instead of pulling the chromosomes away from their duplicates, the microtubules attach so as to pull the like pairs, called homologues, apart and leave the chromosomes attached to their duplicates.

In anaphase I, the microtubules of the spindles pull the homologues apart.

In telephase I, the plasma membrane pinches the cell into two parts and the chromosomes are surrounded by nuclear material. At the end of meiosis I, two haploid cells have been created, but they still have duplicated chromosomes, so the cell must enter meiosis II.

Meoisis II

The purpose of meiosis II is to create cells with no duplicates, for purposes of reproduction. In meiosis II, there are now two cells going through the process. Prophase II and metaphase II occur just as in mitosis, but remember, there are two cells now.

During Anaphase II, the microtubules pull the duplicate chromosomes away from the originals.

During Telophase II, the plasma constricts and nuclei are formed.

Meiosis 2 is similar to mitosis, however, at the end of meiosis II, four haploid cells called gametes have been formed, each with no duplicate chromosomes. The chromatids of each chromosome are not identical
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