Intellectual Functioning: This is having the cognitive abilities to learn, problem solve, abstractive thinking, adapting to new ideas or concepts and accumulating knowledge. It is also stated that in IQ test is used to define a diagnosis of an intellectual disability. Relating a low IQ test score and having an intellectual disability are not significant enough to determine as many people may have a low test score but not be diagnosed with an intellectual disability.
During the 1950s, people who had a disability had two options of housing which included living with their families or living in an institution. However, families did not receive much support since most public welfare services were used towards institutional care, such as mental hospitals and orphanages. Throughout the 1960s there were movements to deinstitutionalize, which at that time basically led to smaller institutions. The 1970s allowed for even smaller community-based residential services that were typically designed for not more than 12 people that were similar in terms of age, independence, or ability. Even though different funding was available, many standards were violated in most of the institutions. Throughout the 70s there were movements to close state institutions and provide more community residential services as well as family support. During the 1980s groundwork for families was laid to expand their control of the nature of the support they received and more options were available to help out with living outside an institution. People with developmental disabilities began to gain increased support to having homes of their own during the 1990s and funded had dramatically increased to over $735 for family support programs in 1998. In 2001 the federal government began a new freedom initiative to “remove barriers to community living for people of all ages with disabilities and long-term illness.” In 2011 the decision that the isolation of people with
According to the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (2017), an intellectual disability is classified as a deficit in “intellectual functioning” and “adaptive behaviors.” For a disability to be qualified as an intellectual disability it must have originated before the age of 18. Some diagnoses that fit under intellectual disability include autism, Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. “Developmental disability” is the umbrella term, encompassing many other disabilities, including those that fall under the category of intellectual disability. Developmental disabilities typically impact an individual in a physical way, such as cerebral palsy or epilepsy.
Many people may say one is a retard without knowing the truth behind the actual word. Intellectual Disability, also known as Mental Retardation, is a very serious psychological disorder that few are faced with for life. Intellectual Disability is characterized by a below-average level of intelligence (a mental ability) that lacks skills necessary for daily living. An IQ is the standard way to measure the level of intelligence one may have. Roughly 95% of humans have the IQ between 70 and 130. (Meyers and DeWall, 2014). The other five percent are either absolute genius or intellectually disabled. Being intellectually disabled can be caused in many ways
Disabilities; these may include a physical or learning disability. Children with a learning disability may not be capable of holding their attention for an extended period or pay close attention in class. A learning disability is not a problem with intelligence, disorders are caused by a difference in how information is received, processed and communicated in the brain.
Though all three criteria must be met, during diagnosis emphasis is placed on the individual’s level of intellectual impairment. In order to determine this, IQ tests such as the Wechsler intelligence scale are completed and the results used to determine if an individual has a learning disability. A person is deemed to have a learning disability if on these IQ tests they score below 70.
He fears that some educators were doing this to get these students out of their classrooms and were using the definition of ID to do it. Ms. Rama the regular classroom educator spoke of her trouble with the definition. She indicated that the definition not only identifies ID, but allowed for other disabilities as well. The definition states that students with mental retardation may be deficient in the following areas: communication, physical care, home environment, social skills, self-direction, community use, health and safety, limited academic ability, leisure and work. If a student has any two of these deficiencies then they qualify as being ID (Thomas, 1996). Both educators expressed a similar problem with the classification of students with ID. The classification of students with ID is not universal, meaning that a student from another state could have mild/moderate ID and not be identified according to that states classification. This can lead to a student not getting the assistance that they need. They expressed that it would better serve students with ID if one set of classification were used in the entire United States.
The word retarded hurts people so much that it makes them feel different from others. People who have a mental illness start to believe that they are below the average human and that they are not the same as others. The word is so offensive that it starts separating these people from the society. On top of that, in relation to this negative meaning, people as such will be ultimately feeling labbeled. Just like the Jewish people during the Holocaust, these people will be looked as differently, when in the end, we are all humans. This one word can ruin someone’s life which is why it should not be used. The word “retarded” is one of the many reasons why segregation still exists today; it separates innocent people for no reason.
There are many forms of mental retardation. Webster’s New World Dictionary defines mental retardation as “a condition, usually congenital, characterized by subnormal intelligence” (Agnes, p404). Mental retardation can be caused by a certain birth defect due to a traumatic event during the mother’s pregnancy, or mental retardation can also be inherited. The most common inherited form of mental retardation is Fragile X Syndrome.
This paper examines the inequalities that African Americans with mental disabilities face in their daily lives. It argues that this constituency receives inadequate medical access and services, different treatment of their disability, and is highly stigmatized as compared to Whites. In order to support my argument I examine public attitudes towards blacks with mental illnesses, their depiction in the media, and contemporary issues related to the topic. I draw on specific course concepts such as ableism and use an intersectional approach to show that African Americans are not given the proper attention they deserve. In the first section of this paper, I examine public attitudes toward African Americans who have mental disabilities and how this affects their treatment options. In the second section, I explore the limited portrayal of blacks with mental disabilities in television and film. In the third and final section, I discuss recent issues regarding the lack of Black disability studies. By researching this topic, I hope to bring more awareness and acceptance of African Americans with mental disabilities. I also want to add more scholarship to the field, which is much needed.
The first step in any research is to accurately define the population of interest. Intellectual Disability (ID) has been called by many different terms: mental retardation, learning disability, mental handicap, and developmentally delayed. Generally, these terms are accepted as interchangeable (Schalock, Luckasson & Shogren, 2007). However, over time some of the characteristics required to receive a diagnosis of ID has changed. In the recent past, the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Metal Disorders Text Revised (DSM IV TR) identified three criteria necessary to be diagnosed with ID. This included: impairments of intellectual functioning (IQ<70) are not necessarily excluded from the diagnosis. By deemphasized the importance of low IQ the as a defining feature of ID the diagnosis expanded its definition to include individual assessed with borderline intelligence and above (fact sheet reference).
The concept of desirability has divided society in two groups. One group has been categorized as the higher- achiever and the other group as the low-achievers. This comparison has been embedded into society for so many years. During the 50’s it was used to protect white middle-class students. Today is mostly used to described people who have mental or physical impairments. Sleeter and Longmore researched how the concept of disability has had a negative development through the US society.
Living with disabilities on a daily basis can be more difficult then some realize. Many people who are born with developmental disabilities start their education and therapy at a very young age and there are also those people who have been diagnosed with a disability sometime during their lifetime. But what is there for them to do once they have graduated from high school or are told they are too old to continue in a regular school or they are simply told they aren’t accepted in the “normal” community? In all reality there really