Moral development Moral development as defined by Lawrence Kohlberg is a theory that follows moral thinking through a series of three levels and six stages that are sequential and remain consistent.
According to Kohlberg level one is entitled Pre-conventional morality (pre-operational). In this level it consists of two stages: Stage One deals with punishment and obedience or how good or bad something may be. Stage two is instrumental purpose and exchange at this stage one is said to conform to seek satisfaction or praise. Level two is the Conventional morality level (concrete operational). The stages at this level include Stage Three: Mutual Interpersonal Orientation and Stage Four: Social Systems and Conscience Orientation. At these stages an individual seeks the approval of others and begins to process the ideas of society as a means to possibly conform. The third level is Post-conventional morality (formal operations). In addition to the third level Stage Five: Social Contract Orientation deals with an individual becoming aware of justice as it serves in the progression of standards. Stage Six: Universal Ethical Principle Orientation the final stage discusses that at this stage it is the highest of moral development. At this stage individuals are able to distinguish right and wrong on their own terms and make decisions for themselves. As discussed in class it is believed that one can’t skip a stage and that the content learned at a previous stage can’t be
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Lawrence Kohlberg, a developmental psychologist, identified six developmental stages of human moral reasoning. The first stage that he recognized was the Punishment-Obedience Orientation, where the person’s concern is for avoiding punishment through obedience. The second stage was the Instrumental Relativist Orientation, where the person’s concern is to work in their self interest, and better their position. The third stage of moral development was the Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation, where the person’s concern lies with their reputation. Next was the Law And Order Orientation, where the person was less concerned with their own immediate well being to the maintenance of a larger society. The fifth stage was the Social Contract
Moral Development is defined as “changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong” (Santrock, 2010). Moral development
Lawrence Kohlberg, the author of three stages, was an American psychologist who is well known for his theory on the stages of moral development. According to Kohlberg, there are three levels of moral development:Preconventional (moral reasoning is based on external rewards and punishments), Conventional (laws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rules), and Postconventional (reasoning is based on personal moral standards)” (powerpoint).
Lawrence Kohlberg, a professor at Harvard, creates a theory of human moral development. Since his theory was an expansion of Jean Piaget moral development of children, he elucidates of his theory to have series of stages. Each stage were categorized into three levels: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. During each level there are 2 stages which are consequent for moral development because they are action that manifest on who we are.
Moral Development: is a sequential stage in moral reasoning that individuals pass through as they develop. As each stage right and wrong is made for different reasons. Crime, including computer crime; can be explained by development of moral reasoning of certain stages.
The second level of Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral development is the Conventional Level. The Conventional level consists of stages 3 and 4. Stage 3 is based on interpersonal expectations. Those who are at this stage try to be a “good” boy or a “good” girl and live up to others’--such as close friends and family’s-- expectations. Stage 4 is based on Law-and-Order. They are not only focused on what their family and friends say; they are now focused on society. These stages are usually reached by early teens. They don’t blindly follow rules;
Moral development is when the child will learn the difference between right and wrong. Piaget came up with three theories of moral development: id, ego and superego. Lawrence Kohlberg expanded Piaget?s theories and came up with six stages of moral development. A four year old child is known to be very active and energetic. They love to talk, enjoy silly humor, love learning new information about their world, and enjoy finding solutions to problems in imaginative ways (Miller, 1999).
Lawrence Kohlberg is known for his theory of moral development developed in 1958. His theory was dependent on the thinking of Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and American philosopher John Dewey. It consists of three levels of moral reasoning: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. These levels are based on the degree to which an individual accommodates to the conventional standards of society. Each level aquires two stages that serve as different standards of sophistication in moral reasoning. Overall, Kohlberg affirms that moral development is a process of maturing that emerges from thinking about about moral issues (“Kohlberg’s Moral Development”).
In our society people's moral development can come at different times and at different ages for everyone, this can help or ruin ways of life and can block us from completing things in need. We can also change our stages in the heat of the moment and return back to stages as well. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral development explains the different stages that a person can be at with their moral development . This takes place in the novel with the boys on the Island in the book Lord of the Flies. All the characters in the book have a moral development I am only going to be talking about three.
Kohlberg’s stages of moral development were based on a moral philosopher by the name of Lawrence Kohlberg. His main interest was to observe children during growth to develop and conclude which stages they best fit into. After observing both adults and children, he concluded that, “Human beings progress consecutively from one stage to the next in an invariant sequence” (“Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development”). All of the 6 stages he created, represent the morality in which a child or adult can be at; he created an age zone for each stage. There are a total of 6 stages but each main concept consists of 3 levels. Level 1 is the preconventional stage. This stage focuses on punishment/obedience and how the person decides to act due to the
Kohlberg (1963, 1981, 1984; Colby & Kohlberg, 1987) expanded Piaget’s work, developing a most influential cognitive developmental theory of moral development. Kohlberg proposed the progression through the invariant, universal sequence of three moral levels each composed of two distinct stages. According to Kohlberg, no stage can be skipped, neither will there be a regression to an earlier stage.
The second level of moral development is the conventional moral reasoning; “Beginning in middle school, up to middle age – most people end up here” (“Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development.”). At this level,
Goldman Sachs should have been punished for its behavior in the years leading up to the financial crisis. Goldman ended up settling with the federal government for $110 Billion, which I do not believe was sufficient based on the magnitude of problems created. This amount should have been much larger, and at minimum they should have forfeited the $14 Billion paid to them by AIG. (Inside Job, 2011) In addition, AIG should have had the right to sue Goldman Sachs for fraud. It was in the public’s best interest to keep Goldman up and running, however additional penalties could have been put on a repayment schedule to keep them solvent. Instead, you had Goldman giving out large bonuses.
The theory of moral development, advanced by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg is one of the most well-known persuasive theories in the field of cognitive science and stems from the work of Jean Piaget, which hypothesizes on the direct correlation that exists between moral and cognitive development. Kohlberg speaks of the appearance and understanding of what is right and wrong from childhood to adulthood and explains by this transition through the identification of various levels of morality known as pre-conventional, conventional and post conventional. People will make decisions based on the understanding of the possible outcome and through reasoning of morals. (Target Concept)