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Moral Entrepreneur - Howard S. Becker Coined The Phrase

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Moral entrepreneur - Howard S. Becker coined the phrase Moral Entrepreneurs (White, Haines and Asquith, 2012) Moral entrepreneurs advocate a certain idea that attempts to influence a group to embrace certain ideas (Becker, 1963). They take leadership in labelling behaviours and advocating or promoting this label throughout society (Uroda, 2016). Moral entrepreneurs are divided into two categories, rule creators and rule enforcers (Smith, 2016). Rule creators are those that create rules or moral crusaders, for example, special interest groups, religious leaders, experts, stakeholders in particular specialisations and legislators (Smith, 2016). Rule enforcers include law enforcement and judges (Palamar, 2017).

Construction of crime
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The stigmatised person can employ ways in which they can compensate for their label such as highlighting a special talent (Goffman, 1963), The stigmatised person can use their difference as an excuse to underachieve in life (Goffman, 1963). They can live in the shadow of their stigma, which can lead to further stigma and develop character traits such as low self-esteem (Palamar, 2017). If it’s within its norms and boundaries, stigma and deviance can still operate successfully (Goffman, 1963). An example of a stigmatised group is outlaw motorcycle bike gangs (Vice, 2014). The targeting of a specific group in society can lead to isolation, hopelessness, and self-stigma and in this case a criminal identity (Uroda, 2016).
Secondary deviance –
Deviance can be viewed as formal social controls (Hawkins, 2014). The criminal justice system response and the informal views of the public can determine what is ‘deviant’, normal, and criminal conduct (Becker, 1963). However, there is no fixed definition on what is deviance due to its complexity in nature and due to the variation in meanings across different cultures (Becker, 1963). Labelling theorists refer to this as construction of crime (Hawkins, 2014). Issues such as substance abuse and mental health are examples of what is classified as ‘deviant’, or not due to the bias views of society (Uroda, 2016). What once was determined as deviant can change over time, for example, suicide was once a
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