One of the most important parts of being an expert within a particular area of study is sharing learned information with other practitioners of the same field. When studying any discipline, it is imperative to be familiar with the way that knowledge is shared within that particular subject. Although there are a plethora of media outlets in the present day that allow experts to share their knowledge in a variety of new and exciting ways, many subjects continue to present their most scholarly findings through academic writings. Academic writing in my specific field, psychology, answers questions about behavior and mental processes with conclusions drawn from research and observation in order to describe, explain, predict, or control it (Cicarelli).
Before someone can understand an individual piece of psychological research, it is important to understand the general purposes of psychology. Psychologists are social scientists that study the processes within the bodies and minds of both people and animals in addition to the outward behaviors that are inherently affected. They describe what happens in reference to a person or animal’s behavior, often learned through observation. Theories are then formed in attempts to explain what happened in those observations. Furthermore, psychology seeks to predict when certain thoughts or behaviors will happen again. Experts desire to control these thoughts and behaviors in order to replace those that are harmful or undesirable with
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There has been an ongoing debate on whether psychology is indeed scientific, although recent, psychology is now considered a science. This is because it uses scientific methodology in researching, devising treatments and measuring the outcomes. These methods include collecting and analysing data and concluding their findings in order to identify whether the research or treatment adequality solves the problem. Scientific studies must be replicable, this means the if repeated exactly the same, the results should produce an identical outcome. Replicability can be increased by ruling out any alternatives that may not have originally been thought of. Objectivity in science is the idea that scientist, in an attempt to get the best results, must first
Psychology is the scientific “study of the mind” (Gross, 2015) and behavior, which includes the study of humans and animals. There are various approaches in modern psychology. A theoretical approach is a perspective (view) about human behavior, there may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions and principles. (McLeod, 2007). A theory is an attempt by theorists to try to explain behavior. Theories are not facts but can be verified by testing. Theories can then be evaluated which I aim to do through this essay, where I will briefly explain the theoretical approaches in psychology and aim to focus on an analysis for each perspective which consist of the psychodynamic, humanist, cognitive and behavioral approaches where I will analyze the strengths and weaknesses of each approach separately.
When it comes to the scientific method, especially in the science of psychology, there are many different ways a question can be asked in order to get the conclusion to a hypothesis. Psychology is by its nature something that not only produces many questions but also helps to find the answer to those questions. Through asking the right questions a person can see a whole new world of understanding unfold before them. This understanding of why a person or animal acts the way it does has been groundbreaking in the growth of understanding a individual on a much deeper level than the sociological standpoint. Before this understanding can be obtained however one must learn first how to ask a proper question and then in turn how to test that
Unit 8: psychological perspectives. Worksheet 1. The behaviourist approach suggest that Behaviour is learned by association. Pavlov used a classical conditioning experiment to prove this theory. During this experiment he used the sound of the bell and the smell of food.
Scholarly writing is a process that requires practice to develop this skill. Hatcher (2011) purports that scholarly writing is root in ideology. This style of writing is multi-faceted; it requires a level of formality, the use of of active voice with the intention to eliminate passive voice, and when writing sentences the character should precede the action. According to (Types of Scholarly Writing, n.d.) this style of writing serves to advance knowledge within a particular field and adds new insights to extend, challenge or expand what is known. The wording should be carefully selected, sentences should be concise and written in third third person. The appearance of scholarly writing is usually structured in the sections, abstract, keywords, introduction, literature review, methodology, result, conclusion, and references.
As stated by Bartol and Bartol (2008), investigative psychology is the application of psychological research and principles to the investigation of criminal behavior (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). Investigative psychology is closely associated with criminal profiling, but there are other areas in which a forensic psychologist can participate in this particular subspecialty. An investigative psychologist maybe asked to perform a psychological autopsy, forensic hypnosis, or produce a geographical mapping. Psychological autopsies are generally performed in suspected suicide cases where the insurance company or family member questions the cause of death. Forensic hypnosis is an interview or interrogation method used by
For many years, psychologists have been interested in studying human behavior and how our brains function. Psychological research has been mainly geared towards discovering parts of the brain, and the environment that influences our behavior as individuals. In other words, research aims to provide reasons why people behave the way they do, and what makes individuals different from each other. Much to the joy of experts in the field, major strides have been made in not only understanding, but also predicting human behavior. Concepts such as the influence of nature versus nurture on personal development, introversion or extroversion, and introspection have provided more insight into the way people think and interact with others and the environment.
The writing submitted to professors gives them an impression of the way our practical mind works when confronted with a significant topic in a distinct field of study. Instructors want to see us learn to think like someone trained within this field. Academic writing make extensive use of specialized vocabulary and is often difficult to read if the reader is unfamiliar. The audience for this type of reading is a reader with the same background and equivalent preparation. In
Psychology attempts to do four main things. The first of these is to describe what is happening, an example of this is observing mother birds leaving their eggs for no known reason. The second thing they try to do is come up with an explanation for why this thing is happening. A sample explanation is that the bird’s eggs were contaminated by humans, such as children playing in trees. The third of these things is to predict when it might happen again, that would be like when little kids go messing with the bird’s nests again. The last of the things psychology strives to do is control it to where it will change. There are two methods of controlling in psychology, manipulation and exploitation. Manipulation is where it benefits the thing
1) Distinguish between operant conditioning, observational learning, and social learning. How are these different kinds of learning utilized in the work place? Give specific examples for each one.
As I come to the end of my first master’s course, it certainly does come with a price of perfection, and perfection I have not found yet. I feel overwhelmed with words and the usage of APA style. My professor Dr. Kris Lichtanski says that scholarly writing is a must when one enters the Psychology field. I have finally understood what scholarly writing is truly about. Every time I hear the words “scholarly writing”, I think of Aristotle and Socrates for some reason, These two famous men from the beginning of antiquity, have impacted our souls and minds with such great wisdom, such as education and medical teachings that one can only imagine and
Psychology has always appeared to me as an extremely complicated and a very abstract notion. What I knew about psychology was that it is a kind of science studying the spirit’s behavior. However, as a scientist who used to study chemistry, I couldn’t really figure out how it is possible to study something that is not “real”. That is the reason, why in my mind, science and psychology were two opposite notions that couldn’t go along. Many years ago, I suffered from an aplastic anemia and was involved in a bone marrow transplant process where I had to deal with a psychologist. She asked me one day, “Did you have to go through a difficult childhood?” I was quite surprised because I was looking for a link between my disease and my childhood, but she explained to me that sometimes our spirit can express a former and unexpected pain through physical outward signs. This experience really reinforced what I already thought of the link between “magic” and psychology, until I decided to take this psychology class as a pre-requisite to the pharmacy school. Now that I have been introduced to the realm of psychology, I realize that it is a science which deals with the human mind and its relation to human behavior; it is linked to the spirit. I also enjoy this course because it enlightens me to better understand the relevance of psychology in my life
The study of human behavior by psychologists such as B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, and Watson is fascinating. These five psychologists each have different theories on human behavior. There are similarities and differences in each of the theories. Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory, studied animals and formed the basis for behavioral psychology (Cherry, 2013). Edward Thorndike’s theory of connectionism consisted of studying the learning process of behavior in animals. His studies also included problem solving, administering and evaluating tests and law of effect, the bases for Operant Conditioning. John B. Watsons
The science of psychology used research and data to form theories. All three have the same common goal, a person’s well-being; they are just different methods on how to get there. In my analysis common misconceptions about Psychology is that there is a definite answer, but when dealing with humans nothing is specific or well defined because we are all emotional creatures. I believe this misconception exists because as humans believe there has to be an answer for everything, sometimes things are the way