Nigerian Development : The Face Of Oil Extraction And How Mncs Such As Shell Essay

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An archetypal example of an oil state and primary exporting country, Nigeria is the largest oil exporter in Africa and the world’s tenth largest oil producer (Pyagbara 2007: 1). As of 2010, crude oil and petroleum gas accounted for approximately 80% of the country’s overall exports, totaling over $50.3 billion in revenues the next year (Pyagbara 2007: 2). Despite maintaining a lucrative resource that could arguably catalyze momentum towards economic development, poverty plagues Nigeria and continues to rise despite efforts to forge positive, developmental changes. In fact, areas showing the largest amounts of oil like the Niger Delta happen to be the country’s most economically marginalized region. A significant impetus of these tumultuous changes has been multinational oil corporations like Shell that have been extracting oil in Nigeria since 1956. This paper seeks to examine Nigerian development in the face of oil extraction and how MNCs such as Shell have played a role in the country’s development. I will argue that MNCs, specifically Shell, have had an adverse effect on development within Nigeria as a result of oil extraction and the establishment of dependency on oil, both of which are amplified by the deep-rooted intrastate issues present despite MNC intervention.
Development in the Context of Oil: Fiscal, Social, and Ecological Damage Multinational oil corporations such as ExxonMobil and Shell share a long history of oil extraction in Nigeria. Royal Dutch Shell and

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