Opioid Tolerance

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Opioids, which includes drugs such as morphine and codeine, bind to opioid receptors and help to relieve pain through the activation of K+ ATP channels. While these analgesic effects of opioids have been studied for decades, the rise of opioid tolerance and addiction creates a very interesting question: How did opioid tolerance and addiction evolve, and what are the ancestral reasons for these traits? To first understand this question, the evolutionary history of opioid receptors needs to be examined. Looking at the evolutionary history of the four opioid receptors seen today in Homo sapiens will help to understand how the functions of each receptor evolved. Secondly, following the evolution of the pathways involved with opioid receptor signaling and comparing that to other pathways would be helpful to understand if there are opioid-like receptor pathways in species besides vertebrates. Finally, looking at the evolution of the pathways involved with physical and social pain will be crucial to understanding why humans are vulnerable to addiction. Examining the effects of social interactions
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claim that the functional properties of mu opioid receptors have been conserved for at least 400 million years. When adding an agonist to a fish opioid receptor, it was discovered that it is sufficient to activate a G-protein-gated potassium channel from a mouse. This was supported by a visualized decrease in cAMP levels after the channel was activated. These interactions suggest that opioid receptors were present around the start of vertebrate evolution. Overall, this article is useful and reliable because the statements were well cited, and the article was published in a reputable journal. This article will be useful in my manuscript to give further proof to the long evolutionary history of opioid receptors. Ultimately, the finding that mu opioid receptors are at least 400 million years old will help serve as a starting point for my
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