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Osteopontin Essay

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Recent studies have demonstrated that the acceleration of osteopontin (OPN) expression in human pancreatic duct epithelial cells contributes to various diseases such as diabetes and pancreatic cancer. What is osteopontin (OPN) expression and what is its effect on the pancreatic duct epithelial cells of individuals affected with diabetes and obesity? To begin with, osteopontin (OPN) is a non-collagenous phosphoprotein bone matrix, a homogenous substance in which the cells and fibres of connective tissue are embedded, which is present in numerous cells which includes, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. OPN is a negatively-charged acidic hydrophilic protein, a protein that has a strong affinity for water, and consists of an approximate number of 300 amino acid remains and can be secreted into all of the fluids in the body. The OPN cDNA from numerous mammalian species, an organism which is classified in the class of mammalia, emits a large degree of homologous …show more content…

Metformin is known to directly affect the actuation of AMP-enacted protein kinase (AMPK), and influences cell expansion and apoptosis by means of p53 and p27kip1. Moreover, protein amalgamation and cell development are hindered because of hindrance of the mammalian focus of rapamycin (hereinafter, mTOR). Yang et al. revealed that the sub-atomic instrument required in cell expansion by means of AMPK and mTOR is included in pancreatic carcinogenesis with a foundation of diabetes. These reports demonstrate that different atomic instruments are included in the cell multiplication reaction to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, and that illuminating these systems may prompt future anticipation and treatment of pancreatic

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