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Overview Of A Riser System

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LITEREATURE REVIEW
OVERVIEW OF A RISER SYSTEM
Conventionally a riser system as part of an offshore drilling or production system, is basically conductor pipes connecting topside structures on the sea surface (an oil and gas floating, production and storage facility or a drilling production structure) and subsea structures on the seabed. (Bai and Bai).
Marine risers have been in existence from the early 1950s, they were used to drill from barges offshore of California, United States. An important landmark happened in 1961, when drilling took place from the dynamically positioned barge CUSS-1. Since those early days, risers have been used for four main purposes, which includes drilling, completion/work over, production and export.
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Department of Marine Technology; University of Newcastle upon Tyne. 1999).

Riser Classifications
There are three main classifications of risers, which are; flexible, rigid(steel catenary risers) and hybrid risers. With rigid and flexible risers as the two main classes, while hybrid risers are a combination of both the flexible and rigid risers.

Flexible Risers
In the 1960s, the Institut Français du Pétrole tried to develop a flexible drilling system with a down-hole turbo-drill, called Flexoforage. But Flexoforage failed, however the flexible pipes already developed were found to be perfectly suited for offshore applications as production and export risers, also as flow lines, which were fully exploited, from the 1970s.(fundamentals of marine risers mechanics). Flexible pipe applications include water depths down to 8,000ft, high pressure up to 10,000 psi, and high temperatures above 150°F, as well as the ability to withstand large vessel motions in adverse weather conditions. (palmer amd king)
Flexible risers are composite pipes constructed from sequential concentric layers of metals and polymeric thermoplastic materials, with each layer having a specific
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